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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) which affects nearly one million people worldwide, leading to a progressive decline of motor and sensory functions, and permanent disability. High b-value diffusion-weighted MR images (b of up to 14000 s/mm(2)) were acquired from the brains of controls and MS patients.(More)
Animal studies have found that the phasic activity of dopamine neurons during reward-related learning resembles a "prediction error" (PE) signal derived from a class of computational models called reinforcement learning (RL). An apparently similar signal can be measured using fMRI in the human striatum, a primary dopaminergic target. However, the fMRI(More)
BACKGROUND Postoperative management of clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA) presents difficult challenges. There are no good serum markers for presence or growth of the tumour, medical treatment is not effective and radiotherapy carries the risk of significant side-effects. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to investigate the natural(More)
OBJECTIVE There is no consensus as to the optimal postoperative treatment of patients with clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA) in whom total tumour removal has not been achieved. In this study we assessed whether dopamine agonist (DA) treatment can prevent postoperative remnant enlargement in NFPA. DESIGN AND METHODS Thirty-three patients(More)
A case of Stafne bone cavity (SBC) affecting the body of the mandible of a 51-year-old female is reported. The imaging modalities included panoramic radiograph, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Panoramic radiograph and CT were able to determine the outline of the cavity and its three dimensional shape, but failed to precisely(More)
OBJECTIVE To explore the diagnostic usefulness of high b-value diffusion magnetic resonance brain imaging ("q-space" imaging) in multiple sclerosis (MS). More specifically, we aimed at evaluating the ability of this methodology to identify tissue damage in the so-called normal-appearing white matter (NAWM). DESIGN In this study we examined the correlation(More)
BACKGROUND Skull base osteomyelitis (SBO) typically evolves as a complication of external otitis in diabetic patients and involves the temporal bone. Central SBO (CSBO) mainly involves the sphenoid or occipital bones without coexisting external otitis. We characterized a group of patients with CSBO. The endoscopic nasopharyngeal and clival biopsy technique(More)
Object: Endoscopic III ventriculostomy (ETV) is an effective and a rather safe treatment for noncommunicating hydrocephalus secondary to aqueductal stenosis and other obstructive pathologies. Though not devoid of risk, ETV is increasingly replacing shunt operations, and it prevents related complications, including overdrainage. Methods: We report a rare(More)
OBJECTIVE To identify the genetic basis of a recessive syndrome characterized by prenatal hyperechogenic brain foci, congenital microcephaly, hypothalamic midbrain dysplasia, epilepsy, and profound global developmental disability. METHODS Identification of the responsible gene by whole exome sequencing and homozygosity mapping. RESULTS Ten patients from(More)