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A simple negative feedback loop of interacting genes or proteins has the potential to generate sustained oscillations. However, many biological oscillators also have a positive feedback loop, raising the question of what advantages the extra loop imparts. Through computational studies, we show that it is generally difficult to adjust a negative feedback(More)
PDZ domain-mediated interactions have greatly expanded during metazoan evolution, becoming important for controlling signal flow via the assembly of multiple signaling components. The evolutionary history of PDZ domain-mediated interactions has never been explored at the molecular level. It is of great interest to understand how PDZ domain-ligand(More)
Evolutionary conservation analyses are important for the identification of protein-protein interactions. For protein complex structures, sequence conservation has been applied to determine protein oligomerization states, to characterize native interfaces from non-specific crystal contacts, and to discriminate near-native structures from docking artifacts.(More)
We developed a process to produce novel interactions between two previously unrelated proteins. This process selects protein scaffolds and designs protein interfaces that bind to a surface patch of interest on a target protein. Scaffolds with shapes complementary to the target surface patch were screened using an exhaustive computational search of the human(More)
The fractionalization of elementary excitations in quantum spin systems is a central theme in current condensed matter physics. The Kitaev honeycomb spin model provides a prominent example of exotic fractionalized quasiparticles, composed of itinerant Majorana fermions and gapped gauge fluxes. However, identification of the Majorana fermions in a(More)
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