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cDNA clones for 4 rat protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) catalytic subunit isotypes, PP1 alpha, PP1 gamma 1, PP1 gamma 2 and PP1 delta, were isolated (K. Sasaki et al., Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 81, 1272-1280, 1990). Antibodies were raised to determine the physiological functions of 4 isotypes. Among these isotypes, the PP1 gamma 2 protein was detected specifically in(More)
Primary mixed glial cell cultures treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1.0 microg/ml) showed biphasic increases of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression 6 h and 24-36 h after LPS treatment. Dibutyryl-guanosine 5',3'-cyclic monophosphate (db-cGMP; 1.0 mM) enhanced the second phase of the LPS-induced iNOS expression 24 and 30 h after LPS(More)
Ubiquitously expressed Mg(2+)-inhibitory cation (MIC) channels are permeable to Ca2+ and Mg2+ and are essential for cell viability. When membrane cholesterol level was increased by pre-incubating cells with a water-soluble form of cholesterol, the endogenous MIC current in HEK293 cells was negatively regulated. The application of phosphatidylinositol(More)
Presenilins (PS1 and PS2) are multifunctional proteins involved in a diverse array of molecular and cellular functions, including proteolysis, development, neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity, ion channel regulation and phospholipid metabolism. Mutations in presenilin genes are responsible for the majority of Familial Alzheimer disease (FAD). Consequently,(More)
The rat phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) gene was isolated from a genomic library by cross-hybridization with a bovine PNMT cDNA probe. Complete nucleotide sequence analysis of a genomic clone showed that this gene contained three exons and spanned about 2.8 kb in length. There were the acute-phase response element, TATA, SP1, and GRE(More)
Microglia play a critical role in controlling the homeostasis of the brain, but over-activated microglia secrete pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines, which induce neuronal cell death. Fucoxanthin (Fx), a marine carotenoid, has demonstrated a variety of beneficial health effects. Despite accumulating evidence supporting the immune-modulating effects of(More)
Cerebral elevation of 42-residue amyloid β-peptide (Aβ42) triggers neuronal dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Even though a number of cholesterol modulating agents have been shown to affect Aβ generation, the role of cholesterol in the pathogenesis of AD is not clear yet. Recently, we have shown that increased membrane cholesterol levels(More)
Deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) in the brain is the main culprit of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ is derived from sequential proteolytic cleavage of amyloid-β precursor protein (APP). Newly synthesized APP is transported from endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane via trans-Golgi network (TGN) after post-translational modification including N- and(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by the accumulation of neurotoxic β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides, which consequently affects cognitive decline and memory impairment. Current research on AD treatment is actively focusing on the prevention of neurotoxic Aβ peptide accumulation. Monsonia angustifolia is reported to(More)
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