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Proteins modified by aldehydes generated from oxidized lipids accumulate in cells during oxidative stress and are commonly detected in diseased or aged tissue. The mechanisms by which cells remove aldehyde-adducted proteins, however, remain unclear. Here, we report that products of lipid peroxidation such as 4-HNE (4-hydroxynonenal) and acrolein activate(More)
Myocardial ischaemia is associated with the generation of lipid peroxidation products such as HNE (4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal); however, the processes that predispose the ischaemic heart to toxicity by HNE and related species are not well understood. In the present study, we examined HNE metabolism in isolated aerobic and ischaemic rat hearts. In aerobic(More)
The generation of oxidized phospholipids in lipoproteins has been linked to vascular inflammation in atherosclerotic lesions. Products of phospholipid oxidation increase endothelial activation; however, their effects on macrophages are poorly understood, and it is unclear whether these effects are regulated by the biochemical pathways that metabolize(More)
Phospholipid oxidation generates several bioactive aldehydes that remain esterified to the glycerol backbone ('core' aldehydes). These aldehydes induce endothelial cells to produce monocyte chemotactic factors and enhance monocyte-endothelium adhesion. They also serve as ligands of scavenger receptors for the uptake of oxidized lipoproteins or apoptotic(More)
Oxidation of unsaturated phospholipids results in the generation of aldehyde side chains that remain esterified to the phospholipid backbone. Such "core" aldehydes elicit immune responses and promote inflammation. However, the biochemical mechanisms by which phospholipid aldehydes are metabolized or detoxified are not well understood. In the studies(More)
One reason that the central nervous system of adult mammals does not regenerate after injury is that neurotrophic factors are present only in low concentrations in these tissues. Recent studies have shown that the application of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) acts to encourage the regrowth of motor and sensory fibers(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the role of aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) in the cardiovascular metabolism of the precursors of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Steady-state kinetic parameters of AKRs with AGE precursors were determined using recombinant proteins expressed in bacteria. Metabolism of methylglyoxal and AGE accumulation(More)
This study was conducted to determine the teratogenic effect of cocaine hydrochloride, alone or in combination with diazepam. Pregnant mice were administered cocaine hydrochloride at 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight intravenously (tail), and/or diazepam at 20 or 40 mg/kg b.w. by gavage. Combinations of diazepam and cocaine (20/10 and 40/20, respectively) were(More)
The outline of the arcuate nucleus in the human medulla oblongata was studied in a series of serial sections of brain stems of newborn and young children. The nucleus lies on the ventral aspect of the pyramid. At higher levels the nucleus lies on the ventral and medial aspect of the pyramid. In the upper regions of the medulla the two nuclei fuse together,(More)