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Dopamine receptor subtypes D1 and D2, and many other seven-transmembrane receptors including adenosine receptor A2A, are colocalized in striatum of brain. These receptors stimulate or inhibit adenylyl cyclases (ACs) to produce distinct physiological and pharmacological responses and interact with each other synergistically or antagonistically at various(More)
Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) has been implicated in pathological changes in inflammatory and apoptotic processes in various cell types including neurons. Here we report the delayed induction of p38 MAPKs in the brain of mice following kainic acid (KA)-induced seizure. The immunoreactivities of p38alpha and p38beta MAPKs were(More)
To understand the roles of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) isoforms in adult mouse brain, in vivo activities and detailed expression patterns of two p38 isoforms, p38alpha and p38beta, were examined by using biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses. The result indicated that the activity of both p38alpha and p38b MAPKs in normal adult(More)
The p38 MAPK signaling pathway has been implicated in various pathological conditions of neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Here we report the differential induction of p38 MAPK isoforms, p38alpha and p38beta, in the adult gerbil brain following transient global ischemia. The p38alpha and p38beta kinase activities were gradually enhanced with the peak(More)
Small heat shock proteins have been implicated in playing a role in various cellular processes, including stress-induced cell death. In kainic acid (KA)-treated rat brain, the immunoreactivity of heat-shock protein 27 (HSP27) was markedly increased in glia cells of the limbic system. In the present study, we demonstrated that alpha B-crystallin, a member of(More)
BACKGROUND Bone marrow (BM) stem cells have been reported to contribute to tissue repair after kidney injury model. However, there is no direct evidence so far that BM cells can trans-differentiate into renal stem cells. METHODS To investigate whether BM stem cells contribute to repopulate the renal stem cell pool, we transplanted BM cells from transgenic(More)
Commensal microbes are necessary for a healthy gut immune system. However, the mechanism involving these microbes that establish and maintain gut immune responses is largely unknown. Here, we have found that the gut immune receptor leucine-rich repeat (LRR) C19 is involved in host-microbiota interactions. LRRC19 deficiency not only impairs the gut immune(More)
We here found that intestinal epithelial Paneth cells secrete FABP4, adipsin and adiponectin in both mice and human. Deletion of Paneth cell results in the decrease of FABP4, adipsin and adiponectin not only in intestinal crypt cells but also in sera, suggesting that they may influence the state of the whole body. We also demonstrate that expression of(More)
Stroke is one of the most common diseases that caused high mortality and has become burden to the health care systems. Stem cell transplantation has shown therapeutic effect in ameliorating ischemic damage after cerebral artery occlusion mainly due to their neurogenesis, immune regulation, or effects on the plasticity, proliferation, and survival of host(More)
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