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MicroRNAs play key roles in tumor metastasis. Here, we describe the regulation and function of miR-218 in gastric cancer (GC) metastasis. miR-218 expression is decreased along with the expression of one of its host genes, Slit3 in metastatic GC. However, Robo1, one of several Slit receptors, is negatively regulated by miR-218, thus establishing a negative(More)
Multi-drug resistance (MDR) has become the largest obstacle to the success of cancer chemotherapies. The mechanisms of MDR and the approaches to test MDR have been discovered, yet not fully understood. This review covers the in vivo and in vitro approaches for the detection of MDR in the laboratory and the mechanisms of MDR in cancers. This study also(More)
Metabolic hormones, such as leptin, alter the input organization of hypothalamic circuits, resulting in increased pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) tone, followed by decreased food intake and adiposity. The gonadal steroid estradiol can also reduce appetite and adiposity, and it influences synaptic plasticity. Here we report that estradiol (E2) triggers a robust(More)
Multidrug resistance (MDR) is the most common cause of chemotherapy failure in gastric cancer (GC) treatment; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) can be involved in carcinogenesis, but the effects of lncRNAs on MDR are poorly understood. We show here that the lncRNA MRUL (MDR-related and upregulated(More)
Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is a post-transcriptional modification of pre-mRNA catalysed by an RNA-specific adenosine deaminase (ADAR). A-to-I RNA editing has been previously reported in the pre-mRNAs of brain glutamate and serotonin receptors and in lung tissue during inflammation. Here we report that systemic inflammation markedly induces(More)
UNLABELLED Recurrence and metastasis remain the most common causes of lethal outcomes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after curative resection. Thus, it is critical to discover the mechanisms underlying HCC metastasis. Forkhead box C1 (FoxC1), a member of the Fox family of transcription factors, induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and promotes(More)
Sirt1 has been associated with various effects of calorie restriction, including an increase in lifespan. Here we show in mice that a central regulatory component in energy metabolism, the hypothalamic melanocortin system, is affected by Sirt1, which promotes the activity and connectivity of this system resulting in negative energy balance. In adult mice,(More)
Haploid cells are amenable for genetic analysis. Recent success in the derivation of mouse haploid embryonic stem cells (haESCs) via parthenogenesis has enabled genetic screening in mammalian cells. However, successful generation of live animals from these haESCs, which is needed to extend the genetic analysis to the organism level, has not been achieved.(More)
BACKGROUND Studies have been shown that miR-125a plays an important role in carcinogenesis, however, the role of miR-125a in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains elusive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL Real time-PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to test the significance of miR-125a in HCC. Ectopic expression of miR-125a was used to test the influences of miR-125a on(More)
The RNA-editing enzyme ADAR1 modifies adenosines by deamination and produces A-to-I mutations in mRNA. ADAR1 was recently demonstrated to function in host defense and in embryonic erythropoiesis during fetal liver development. The mechanisms for these phenotypic effects are not yet known. Here we report a novel function of ADAR1 in the regulation of gene(More)