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We reevaluated a previously reported family with an X-linked mental retardation syndrome and attempted to identify the underlying genetic defect. Screening of candidate genes in a 10-Mb region on Xq25 implicated CUL4B as the causative gene. CUL4B encodes a scaffold protein that organizes a cullin-RING (really interesting new gene) ubiquitin ligase (E3)(More)
CUL4A and CUL4B, which are derived from the same ancestor, CUL4, encode scaffold proteins that organize cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase (E3) complexes. Recent genetic studies have shown that germ line mutation in CUL4B can cause mental retardation, short stature, and other abnormalities in humans. CUL4A was observed to be overexpressed in breast and(More)
UNLABELLED Cancer is characterized by mutations, genome rearrangements, epigenetic changes, and altered gene expression that enhance cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. To accommodate deregulated cellular proliferation, many DNA replication-initiation proteins are overexpressed in human cancers. However, the mechanism that represses the expression(More)
BACKGROUND Micronuclei (MN) in mammalian cells serve as a reliable biomarker of genomic instability and genotoxic exposure. Elevation of MN is commonly observed in cells bearing intrinsic genomic instability and in normal cells exposed to genotoxic agents. DNA double-strand breaks are marked by phosphorylation of H2AX at serine 139 (γ-H2AX). One subclass of(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a critical role in angiogenesis due to its potent and specific ability to promote the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells. Resveratrol has been shown to have many health-benefiting effects, including the protection of cardiovascular system. In this study we examined the effect of resveratrol on(More)
Artesunate, a semi-synthetic derivative of arteminisin originally developed for the treatment of malaria, has recently been shown to possess antitumor properties. One of the cytotoxic effects of artesunate on cancer cells is mediated by induction of oxidative stress and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). We report here that in addition to inducing oxidative(More)
Cullin-RING ligases (CRLs) complexes participate in the regulation of diverse cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, transcription, signal transduction and development. Serving as the scaffold protein, cullins are crucial for the assembly of ligase complexes, which recognize and target various substrates for proteosomal degradation. Mutations(More)
We reported that Cullin4B-Ring E3 ligase complex (CRL4B) is physically associated with Polycomb-repressive complex 2 (PRC2). We showed that CRL4B possesses an intrinsic transcription repressive activity by promoting H2AK119 monoubiquitination. Ablation of Cul4b or depletion of CUL4B, the main component of CRL4B, resulted in loss of not only H2AK119(More)
Imitation Switch (ISWI) is a member of the SWI2/SNF2 superfamily of ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers, which are involved in multiple nuclear functions, including transcriptional regulation, replication, and chromatin assembly. Mammalian genomes encode two ISWI orthologs, SNF2H and SNF2L. In order to clarify the molecular mechanisms governing the(More)
SSX, a family of genes clustered on the X chromosome, has been identified as a cancer–testis antigen and also forms a part of the SYT–SSX fusion gene found in synovial sarcoma, implying that it has an important role in tumorigenesis. However, knowledge of the molecular regulation of SSX is still limited. In this study, we demonstrate that SSX or its SYT(More)