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Regulated gene expression and progeny production are essential for persistent and chronic infection by human pathogens, such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), which affects >400 million people worldwide and is a major cause of liver disease. In this study, we provide the first direct evidence that a liver-specific microRNA, miR-122, binds to a highly conserved(More)
Interleukin-32 was recently identified as a pro-inflammatory cytokine produced by T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, epithelial cells, and blood monocytes. IL-32 is induced by IFN-gamma in a time-dependent manner suggesting a role for IL-32 in innate and adaptive immune responses. In this study we present evidence that Human immunodeficiency virus(More)
Influenza A virus is responsible for influenza epidemics in avian and human populations and poses a great threat to human health. Many researches have been focused on the prevention and treatment of influenza A virus infection. The nucleoprotein (NP) of the virus is an important protein due to its ability to interact with a variety of viral and cellular(More)
Recombinant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi can function as a live vector to deliver foreign antigens to the mammalian immune system and induce both mucosal and systemic immunity. In this study, we generated a recombinant Salmonella Typhi strain pilS-pilT-Gag+ (pVAX1-gp120) harboring the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) gag gene integrated into the(More)
Chronic inflammation induced by hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major causative factor associated with the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, we investigated the roles of three inflammatory factors, IL-8, IL-29 (or IFN-λ1), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), in HBV infection. We showed that the expression of IL-29, IL-8, and COX-2(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes chronic hepatitis, which often results in the development of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide. In this study, we demonstrated that the non-structural protein NS3 of HCV enhances cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene promoter activity, COX-2 mRNA expression, COX-2 protein production, and prostaglandin E2(More)
The immune system plays important roles in determining the outcomes of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Interleukin-27 (IL-27) is a recently identified pro-inflammatory cytokine produced by macrophages, dendritic cells, and epithelial cells. To determine the correlation between HBV infection and IL-27 expression, we investigated the serum IL-27 levels in(More)
SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) causes inflammation and damage to the lungs resulting in severe acute respiratory syndrome. To evaluate the molecular mechanisms behind this event, we investigated the roles of SARS-CoV proteins in regulation of the proinflammatory factor, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Individual viral proteins were tested for their(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is often acquired in individuals already infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) as a result of shared routes of transmission. Since current options for the treatment of HIV and HBV infections are limited, there is an essential need for the development of effective therapies against HIV/HBV co-infections. RNA interference(More)
Alpha-subtype protein kinase C (PKCα) is closely related to cardiovascular disease. Ritonavir (RTV), which is a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor, can induce atherosclerosis in a PKC-dependent manner. However, it remains unclear how RTV acts on PKCα to induce pathological phenotypes. In this study, we obtained mouse peritoneal(More)