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Regulated gene expression and progeny production are essential for persistent and chronic infection by human pathogens, such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), which affects >400 million people worldwide and is a major cause of liver disease. In this study, we provide the first direct evidence that a liver-specific microRNA, miR-122, binds to a highly conserved(More)
DEAD-box RNA helicases constitute the largest family of RNA helicases and are involved in many aspects of RNA metabolism. In this study, we identified RelA (p65), a subunit of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), as a cellular co-factor of DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX1, through mammalian two hybrid system and co-immunoprecipitation assay. Additionally, confocal(More)
Borna disease virus (BDV) is one of the infectious agents that causes diseases of the central nervous system in a wide range of vertebrate species and, perhaps, in humans. The phosphoprotein (P) of BDV, an essential cofactor of virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, is required for virus replication. In this study, we identified the gamma-aminobutyric acid(More)
Due to share the route of transmission, the prevalence of co-infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is high with chronic HBV infection affecting nearly 10% of HIV-infected patient world wide, which has become a significant global health problem. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with HBV/HIV-1(More)
The immune system plays important roles in determining the outcomes of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Interleukin-27 (IL-27) is a recently identified pro-inflammatory cytokine produced by macrophages, dendritic cells, and epithelial cells. To determine the correlation between HBV infection and IL-27 expression, we investigated the serum IL-27 levels in(More)
Influenza A virus is responsible for influenza epidemics in avian and human populations and poses a great threat to human health. Many researches have been focused on the prevention and treatment of influenza A virus infection. The nucleoprotein (NP) of the virus is an important protein due to its ability to interact with a variety of viral and cellular(More)
Recombinant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi can function as a live vector to deliver foreign antigens to the mammalian immune system and induce both mucosal and systemic immunity. In this study, we generated a recombinant Salmonella Typhi strain pilS-pilT-Gag+ (pVAX1-gp120) harboring the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) gag gene integrated into the(More)
SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) causes inflammation and damage to the lungs resulting in severe acute respiratory syndrome. To evaluate the molecular mechanisms behind this event, we investigated the roles of SARS-CoV proteins in regulation of the proinflammatory factor, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Individual viral proteins were tested for their(More)
Interleukin-32 was recently identified as a pro-inflammatory cytokine produced by T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, epithelial cells, and blood monocytes. IL-32 is induced by IFN-gamma in a time-dependent manner suggesting a role for IL-32 in innate and adaptive immune responses. In this study we present evidence that Human immunodeficiency virus(More)
BACKGROUND The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major etiological factor of inflammation and damage to the liver resulting in hepatocellular carcinoma. Transcription factors play important roles in the disordered gene expression and liver injury caused by HBV. However, the molecular mechanisms behind this observation have not been defined. RESULTS In this(More)