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Accumulating evidence indicates that elevated levels of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) can increase intestinal epithelial cell proliferation, and thus play a role in colorectal tumorigenesis. PGE(2) exerts its effects through four G-protein-coupled PGE receptor (EP) subtypes, named the EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4. Increased phosphorylation of extracellular(More)
Our series of competitive antagonists against the G-protein coupled receptor P2Y(14) were found to be highly shifted in the presence of serum (>99% protein bound). A binding assay using 2% human serum albumin (HSA) was developed to guide further SAR studies and led to the identification of the zwitterion 2, which is substantially less shifted (18-fold) than(More)
Parkinson's disease is characterized by a loss of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons. This neuronal loss is mimicked by the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+). MPP+ toxicity is mediated through inhibition of mitochondrial complex I, decreasing ATP production, and upregulation of oxygen radicals. There is evidence that the cell death induced by(More)
We investigated the role of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) in mammary tumorigenesis using both genetic and pharmacological approaches. It has been previously shown that transgenic mice with a deletion mutation in the region of Erbb2 encoding its extracellular domain (referred to as NDL2 mice, for 'Neu deletion in extracellular domain 2') develop(More)
Previous evidence has implicated E prostanoid receptor 4 (EP4) in mechanical hyperalgesia induced by subplantar inflammation. However, its role in chronic arthritis remains to be further defined because previous attempts have generated two conflicting lines of evidence, with one showing a marked reduction of arthritis induced by a collagen antibody in mice(More)
A rodent model of sepsis was used to establish the relationship between caspase inhibition and inhibition of apoptotic cell death in vivo. In this model, thymocyte cell death was blocked by Bcl-2 transgene, indicating that apoptosis was predominantly dependent on the mitochondrial pathway that culminates in caspase-3 activation. Caspase inhibitors,(More)
The design, synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of 4-aminopyrazolylpyrimidines as potent Trk kinase inhibitors is reported. High-throughput screening identified a promising hit in the 4-aminopyrazolylpyrimidine chemotype. Initial optimization of the series led to more potent Trk inhibitors. Further optimization using two strategies resulted in(More)
1. Caspases, key enzymes in the apoptosis pathway, have been detected in the brain of HD patients and in animal models of the disease. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective properties of a new, reversible, caspase-3-specific inhibitor, M826(More)
Hypoxia-ischemia (H-I) in the developing brain results in brain injury with prominent features of both apoptosis and necrosis. A peptide-based pan-caspase inhibitor is neuroprotective against neonatal H-I brain injury, suggesting a central role of caspases in brain injury. Because previously studied peptide-based caspase inhibitors are not potent and are(More)