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Botrytis cinerea isolates obtained from apple orchards were screened for resistance to the quinone outside inhibitor (QoI) pyraclostrobin. Of the 220 isolates tested, 43 (19.5%) were resistant to pyraclostrobin. Analysis of partial sequences of the cytochrome b gene (cyt b) in five pyraclostrobin-resistant (PR) and five pyraclostrobin-sensitive (PS)(More)
A novel polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-Luminex assay was developed for rapid, accurate, and high-throughput detection of the most important hepatitis B virus (HBV) variants, including those with reverse transcriptase (RT) domain L180M, M204I/V, A181T/V/S, I233V and N236T mutations associated with resistance to lamivudine (LAM) or adefovir (ADV). Using(More)
Botrytis cinerea isolates obtained from apple orchards were screened for resistance to boscalid. Boscalid-resistant (BosR) isolates were classified into four phenotypes based on the levels of the concentration that inhibited fungal growth by 50% relative to control. Of the 220 isolates tested, 42 were resistant to boscalid, with resistant phenotypes ranging(More)
Thiabendazole (TBZ) is commonly used as a postharvest treatment for control of blue mold in apples caused by Penicillium expansum. Different point mutations in the β-tubulin gene conferring benzimidazole resistance have been reported in plant pathogens, but molecular mechanisms of TBZ resistance in P. expansum from apple in Washington State are unknown.(More)
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