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This research examines the life-cycle water and nutrients usage of microalgae-based biodiesel production. The influence of water types, operation with and without recycling, algal species, geographic distributions are analyzed. The results confirm the competitiveness of microalgae-based biofuels and highlight the necessity of recycling harvested water and(More)
Brown midrib mutants in maize are known to be associated with reduced lignin content and increased cell wall digestibility, which leads to better forage quality and higher efficiency of cellulosic biomass conversion into ethanol. Four well known brown midrib (bm) mutants, named bm1–4, were identified several decades ago. Additional recessive brown midrib(More)
In this study adsorption of Cd onto TiO2 nanoparticles and natural sediment particles (SP) were studied and the facilitated transports of Cd into carp by TiO2 nanoparticles and SP were assessed by bioaccumulation tests exposing carp (Cyprinus carpio) to Cd contaminated water in the presence of TiO2 and SP respectively. The results show that TiO2(More)
BACKGROUND Reduced lignin content leads to higher cell wall digestibility and, therefore, better forage quality and increased conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol. However, reduced lignin content might lead to weaker stalks, lodging, and reduced biomass yield. Genes encoding enzymes involved in cell wall lignification have been shown to(More)
This study examined the effects of different-sized nanoparticles on potential cytotoxicity in intestinal epithelia. Three sizes of hematite nanoparticles were used for the study at a 10 ppm concentration: 17, 53, and, 100 nm. Results indicate that, of the hematite nanoparticles tested, 17 nm was more toxic to the epithelial integrity than 53 or 100 nm. In(More)
Keywords: Emissions embodied in trade Input–output analysis China a b s t r a c t This study examines the annual CO 2 emissions embodied in China's exports from 2002 to 2008 using environmental input–output analysis. Four driving forces, including emission intensity, economic production structure, export composition, and total export volume, are compared(More)
Iron oxide nanoparticles offer unique possibilities due to the change in their physico-chemical parameters when synthesized on the nanoscale (10−9 m) compared to their bulk forms. While novel uses exist for these materials when synthesized as nanoparticles, their unintended effects on the human body and specifically during pregnancy remain ill defined. In(More)
BACKGROUND OMT (O-methyltransferase) genes are involved in lignin biosynthesis, which relates to stover cell wall digestibility. Reduced lignin content is an important determinant of both forage quality and ethanol conversion efficiency of maize stover. RESULTS Variation in genomic sequences coding for COMT, CCoAOMT1, and CCoAOMT2 was analyzed in relation(More)
In this study adsorption of arsenic (As) onto TiO 2 nanoparticles and the facilitated transport of As into carp (Cyprinus carpio) by TiO 2 nanoparticles was examined. Adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherm were conducted by adding As(V) to TiO 2 suspensions. Facilitated transport of As by TiO 2 nanoparticles was assessed by accumulation tests exposing(More)
In a recent work published in Particle and Fibre Toxicology by Fisichella and coworkers investigating surface-modified TiO2 nanoparticle exposure in a model human intestinal epithelium (Caco-2), albeit degraded to mimic conditions in the gut and exposure to natural sunlight, purportedly resulted in no toxic effects. The authors (Fisichella et al.) claim to(More)