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NAND flash memory can provide cost-effective secondary storage in mobile embedded systems, but its lack of a random access capability means that code shadowing is generally required, taking up extra RAM space. Demand paging with NAND flash memory has recently been proposed as an alternative which requires less RAM. This scheme is even more attractive for(More)
In this paper, we introduce a precise energy characterization of SDRAM main memory systems and explore the amount of energy associated with design parameters, leading to energy reduction techniques that we are able to recommend for practical use.We build an in-house energy simulator for SDRAM main memory systems based on cycle-accurate energy measurement(More)
Memory systems are dominant energy consumers, and thus many energy reduction techniques for memory buses and devices have been proposed. For practical energy reduction practices, we have to take into account the interaction between a processor and cache memories together with application programs. Furthermore, energy characterization of memory systems must(More)
Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) play many important roles, ranging from small glue logic replacement to System-on-Chip (SoC) designs. Nevertheless, FPGA vendors cannot accurately specify the power consumption of their products on device data sheets because the power consumption of FPGAs is strongly dependent on the target circuit, including resource(More)
Most digital systems are equipped with DC-DC converters to supply various levels of voltages from batteries to logic devices. DCDC converters maintain legal voltage ranges regardless of the load current variation as well as battery voltage drop. Although the efficiency of DC-DC converters is changed by the output voltage level and the load current, most(More)
Most digital systems are equipped with dc-dc converters to supply various levels of voltages from batteries to logic devices. DC-DC converters maintain legal voltage ranges regardless of the load current variation as well as battery voltage drop. Although the efficiency of dc-dc converters is changed by the output voltage level and the load current, most(More)
A new feature set suited for IP telephony is described. The user value of this feature set is discussed in terms of social science results. This feature set supports natural human collaboration within a human environment. The use by humans of casual awareness to support collaboration is discussed and models taken from architectural research are used to show(More)
  • John R Horton, Gary Ratner, +6 authors Xiaodong Cheng
  • 2004
Rotation of a DNA or RNA nucleotide out of the double helix and into a protein pocket ('base flipping') is a mechanistic feature common to some DNA/RNA-binding proteins. Here, we report the structure of HhaI methyltransferase in complex with DNA containing a south-constrained abasic carbocyclic sugar at the target site in the presence of the methyl donor(More)