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The pre-Bötzinger complex (PBC) inspiratory center remains active in a transverse brainstem slice. Such slices are studied at high (8-10 mM) superfusate [K+], which could attenuate the sensitivity of the PBC to neuromodulators such as opiates. Findings may also be confounded because slice boundaries, drug injection sites, or location of rhythmogenic(More)
The discovery of the rhythmogenic pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC) inspiratory network, which remains active in a transverse brainstem slice, greatly increased the understanding of neural respiratory control. However, basic questions remain unanswered such as (1) What are the necessary and sufficient slice boundaries for a functional preBötC? (2) Is the(More)
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating stroke causing considerable tissue destruction from mechanical trauma and secondary degeneration. Free iron, released over days from degrading erythrocytes, causes free radicals that likely contribute to delayed injury. Indeed, an intracerebral injection of iron rapidly kills cells and causes cerebral edema.(More)
Iron chelators, such as the intracellular ferrous chelator 2,2′-bipyridine, are a potential means of ameliorating iron-induced injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We evaluated bipyridine against the collagenase and whole-blood ICH models and a simplified model of iron-induced damage involving a striatal injection of FeCl2 in adult rats. First, we(More)
Studies treating intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) with therapeutic hypothermia (TH) have shown inconsistent benefits. We hypothesized that TH's anti-inflammatory effects may be responsible as inflammatory cells are essential for removing degrading erythrocytes. Here, we subjected rats to a collagenase-induced striatal ICH followed by whole-body TH (∼33℃ for(More)
Collateral circulation is a key variable determining prognosis and response to recanalization therapy during acute ischemic stroke. Remote ischemic perconditioning (RIPerC) involves inducing peripheral ischemia (typically in the limbs) during stroke and may reduce perfusion deficits and brain damage due to cerebral ischemia. In this study, we directly(More)
BACKGROUND Brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) arises from numerous contributors, of which some also play essential roles. Notably, thrombin production, needed to stop bleeding, also causes acute cell death and edema. In some rodent models of ICH, peri-hematoma neurons die over weeks. Hence we evaluated whether thrombin is responsible for this(More)
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is often a devastating stroke, and there are no clinically proven neuroprotective treatments. Considerable research points to iron toxicity as a leading contributor to secondary damage after ICH. Iron, released from degraded erythrocytes, catalyzes free radical production, thereby causing cell death in the ensuing days and(More)
Secondary neurodegeneration occurs hours to days after an intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Thrombin, a protease important in clotting, is one of the causes of this injury. Presently, we evaluated whether hypothermia mitigates thrombin-induced cerebral edema, cell death, and behavioral impairment. Rats were given a striatal infusion of thrombin, which models(More)
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