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The intracellular storage and utilization of lipids are critical to maintain cellular energy homeostasis. During nutrient deprivation, cellular lipids stored as triglycerides in lipid droplets are hydrolysed into fatty acids for energy. A second cellular response to starvation is the induction of autophagy, which delivers intracellular proteins and(More)
The relative balance between the quantity of white and brown adipose tissue can profoundly affect lipid storage and whole-body energy homeostasis. However, the mechanisms regulating the formation, expansion, and interconversion of these 2 distinct types of fat remain unknown. Recently, the lysosomal degradative pathway of macroautophagy has been identified(More)
Macroautophagy has been implicated as a mechanism of cell death. However, the relationship between this degradative pathway and cell death is unclear as macroautophagy has been shown recently to protect against apoptosis. To better define the interplay between these two critical cellular processes, we determined whether inhibition of macroautophagy could(More)
The 3rd Generation Partnership (3GPP) standard is developing System Architecture Evolution(SAE)/Long Term Evolution(LTE) architecture for the next generation mobile communication system. In the LTE/SAE architecture, EPS AKA(Evolved Packet System Authentication and Key Agreement) procedure is used to provide mutual authentication between the user and the(More)
Insulin resistance and increased cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) expression are both associated with and mechanistically implicated in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Although currently viewed as distinct factors, insulin resistance and CYP2E1 expression may be interrelated through the ability of CYP2E1-induced oxidant stress to impair(More)
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by hepatic steatosis and varying degrees of necroinflammation. Although chronic oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines, and insulin resistance have been implicated in the pathogenesis of NAFLD, the mechanisms that underlie the initiation and progression of this disease remain unknown. c-Jun(More)
UNLABELLED Activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) has been implicated as a mechanism in the development of steatohepatitis. This finding, together with the reported role of JNK signaling in the development of obesity and insulin resistance, two components of the metabolic syndrome and predisposing factors for fatty liver disease, suggests that JNK may(More)
UNLABELLED Runx proteins mediate skeletal development. We studied the regulation of Runx1 during chondrocyte differentiation by real-time RT-PCR and its function during chondrogenesis using overexpression and RNA interference. Runx1 induces mesenchymal stem cell commitment to the early stages of chondrogenesis. INTRODUCTION Runx1 and Runx2 are(More)
In vitro studies of hepatocytes have implicated over-activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling as a mechanism of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF)-induced apoptosis. However, the functional significance of JNK activation and the role of specific JNK isoforms in TNF-induced hepatic apoptosis in vivo remain unclear. JNK1 and JNK2 function was,(More)
PURPOSE We had conducted a comprehensive study on preparation, characterization and pharmacokinetics of nimodipine nanocrystals for oral administration previously, and nimodipine nanocrystals displayed lower dissolution profiles but higher bioavailability than Nimotop(®). In this study, we aimed at elucidating the reasons of unfavorable in vitro in vivo(More)