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Glioblastomas multiforme (GBM) contain highly tumorigenic, self-renewing populations of stem/initiating cells [glioblastoma stem cells (GSC)] that contribute to tumor propagation and treatment resistance. However, our knowledge of the specific signaling pathways that regulate GSCs is limited. The MET tyrosine kinase is known to stimulate the survival,(More)
The presence of active immunity within the brain supports the possibility of effective immunotherapy for glioblastoma (GBM). To provide a clinically-relevant adoptive immunotherapy for GBM using ex vivo expanded cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells, the treatment capability of CIK cells, either alone or in combination with temozolomide (TMZ) were evaluated.(More)
Tumor-tropic properties of neural stem cells (NSCs) provide a novel approach with which to deliver targeting therapeutic genes to brain tumors. Previously, we developed a therapeutic strategy against metastatic brain tumors using a human NSC line (F3) expressing cytosine deaminase (F3.CD). F3.CD converts systemically administered 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC), a(More)
Currently, clinically available options for treating glioblastoma (GBM) are quite limited, and there is a clear need to develop novel treatment strategies that can more effectively manage tumors. Here, we present a combination treatment of temozolomide (TMZ), a blood-brain barrier penetrating DNA alkylating agent, and ZD6474 (vandetanib), a VEGFR2 and EGFR(More)
Radiation is the most useful treatment modality for cancer patients. It initiates a series of signal cascades such as DNA damage response (DDR) signaling for repairing damaged DNA, arresting the cell cycle, and inducing cell death. Until now, few genes have been found to be regulated by radiation, which explains the molecular mechanisms of cellular(More)
RNA interference is a powerful strategy that inhibits gene expression through specific mRNA degradation. In vivo, however, the application of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) is severely limited by their instability and their poor delivery into target cells and tissues. This is especially true with glioblastomas (GBMs), the most frequent and malignant form(More)
A set of proteins reflecting the prognosis of patients have clinical significance since they could be utilized as predictive biomarkers and/or potential therapeutic targets. With the aim of finding novel diagnostic and prognostic markers for glioblastoma (GBM), a tissue microarray (TMA) library consisting of 62 GBMs and(More)
Glioblastoma (GBM) patients have dismal median survival even with the most rigorous treatments currently available. Radiotherapy is the most effective non-surgical therapy for GBM patients; however, patients succumb due to tumor recurrence within a year. To develop a curative therapeutic approach, we need to better understand the underlying molecular(More)
The advent of cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis has revolutionized the cancer biology community's thinking in explaining the notorious resistance of cancer to conventional chemo- and radiotherapies. The hypothesis states that the CSCs are a subpopulation within the tumor endowed with superior resistance and with the exclusive ability to self-renew,(More)