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N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors transiently transfected into mammalian HEK-293 cells were characterized with subunit-specific antibodies and electrophysiological recordings. Deactivation time course recorded in response to fast-glutamate pulses were studied in isolated and lifted cells, as well as in outside-out membrane patches excised from cells(More)
Plant mechanical strength is an important agronomic trait. To understand the molecular mechanism that controls the plant mechanical strength of crops, we characterized the classic rice mutant brittle culm1 (bc1) and isolated BC1 using a map-based cloning approach. BC1, which encodes a COBRA-like protein, is expressed mainly in developing sclerenchyma cells(More)
Abscisic acid (ABA) is a ubiquitous hormone that regulates plant growth, development and responses to environmental stresses. Its action is mediated by the PYR/PYL/RCAR family of START proteins, but it remains unclear how these receptors bind ABA and, in turn, how hormone binding leads to inhibition of the downstream type 2C protein phosphatase (PP2C)(More)
Tillering in rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important agronomic trait for grain production, and also a model system for the study of branching in monocotyledonous plants. Rice tiller is a specialized grain-bearing branch that is formed on the unelongated basal internode and grows independently of the mother stem (culm) by means of its own adventitious roots.(More)
Strigolactones (SLs) are a group of newly identified plant hormones that control plant shoot branching. SL signalling requires the hormone-dependent interaction of DWARF 14 (D14), a probable candidate SL receptor, with DWARF 3 (D3), an F-box component of the Skp-Cullin-F-box (SCF) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. Here we report the characterization of a(More)
BACKGROUND The production of secondary metabolites with antibiotic properties is a common characteristic to entomopathogenic bacteria Xenorhabdus spp. These metabolites not only have diverse chemical structures but also have a wide range of bioactivities with medicinal and agricultural interests such as antibiotic, antimycotic and insecticidal, nematicidal(More)
Immunoblot analysis, using antibodies against distinct N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor subunits, illustrated that the NR2A and NR2B subunit proteins have developmental profiles in cultured cortical neurons similar to those seen in vivo. NR1 and NR2B subunits display high levels of expression within the first week. In contrast, the NR2A subunit is(More)
A polyclonal antibody for the NMDA receptor subunit NR2D has been developed that identifies an approximately 160-kDa band on immunoblots from NR2D transfected cells and CNS tissues. No cross-reactivity is seen with other NMDA receptor subunits. The NR2D receptor subunit is N-glycosylated in both brain and transfected cells. Transfected cells expressing NR2D(More)
The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is assembled using proteins from two gene families, NR1 and NR2. Although a few studies have examined the composition of NMDA receptors containing NR1, NR2A, and NR2B, the composition of native NMDA receptors that incorporate the NR2D subunit is not known. The goal of the current study was to examine the subunit(More)
Karrikins and strigolactones (SL) are two classes of butenolide compounds that control many aspects of plant physiology. Karrikins, originally found in the smoke of forest fires, have the ability to stimulate seed germination [1]. SL are endogenous plant hormones that mediate responses to low levels of soil nutrients, such as phosphate and nitrate [2]. They(More)