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The production of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) plays a key role in chronic pain such as neuropathic pain. We investigated changes in cytokine expression in injured peripheral nerves and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) following electroacupuncture (EA) treatment. Neuropathic(More)
Salt signals in tongue are relayed to the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST). This signaling is very important to determine whether to swallow salt-related nutrition or not and suggests some implications in discrimination of salt concentration. Salt concentration-dependent electrical responses in the chorda tympani and the NST were well reported. But salt(More)
The possible existence of nonlinear determinism in complex interspike interval (ISI) patterns of rat suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) neurons is investigated in hypothalamic slice preparations. ISI sequences are recorded from 173 neurons using a cell-attached patch recording technique, and their correlation dimensions (D2) are estimated. These values are then(More)
Cation-specific epithelial receptors on the tongue have been well demonstrated. However, active regions along the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) for cations Na(+), K(+), NH4(+) are still unclear, even though the best responses of NST neurons to taste stimuli vary depending on the cell. In the present study, the spatial distribution patterns of(More)
Individual neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the master biological clock in mammals, autonomously produce highly complex patterns of spikes. We have shown that most (~90%) SCN neurons exhibit truly stochastic interspike interval (ISI) patterns. The aim of this study was to understand the stochastic nature of the firing patterns in SCN neurons by(More)
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is known to be the master biological clock in mammals. Despite the periodic mean firing rate, interspike interval (ISI) patterns of SCN neurons are quite complex and irregular. The aim of the present study was to investigate the existence of nonlinear determinism in the complex ISI patterns of SCN neurons. ISI sequences(More)
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