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Target of Rapamycin (TOR) is a major nutrition and energy sensor that regulates growth and life span in yeast and animals. In plants, growth and life span are intertwined not only with nutrient acquisition from the soil and nutrition generation via photosynthesis but also with their unique modes of development and differentiation. How TOR functions in these(More)
Embryogenesis is central to the life cycle of most plant species. Despite its importance, because of the difficulty associated with embryo isolation, global gene expression programs involved in plant embryogenesis, especially the early events following fertilization, are largely unknown. To address this gap, we have developed methods to isolate whole live(More)
The seed coat is important for embryo protection, seed hydration, and dispersal. Seed coat composition is also of interest to the agricultural sector, since it impacts the nutritional value for humans and livestock alike. Although some seed coat genes have been identified, the developmental pathways controlling seed coat development are not completely(More)
Shikonin, an analog of naphthoquinone pigments isolated from the root of Lithospermum erythrorhyzon, was recently reported to exert beneficial anti-inflammatory effects both in vivo and in vitro. The present study aimed to investigate the potential therapeutic effect of shikonin in a murine model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI).(More)
Emodin is an anthraquinone derivative from the Chinese herb Radix et Rhizoma Rhei. It has been reported that emodin possesses a number of biological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-virus, anti-bacteria, anti-tumor, and immunosuppressive properties. However, the effect of emodin on mastitis is not yet known. The aim of this study was to(More)
The endometrium is easily contaminated with bacteria and the endometrial epithelial cells (EECs) play an important role in defence against invading pathogens which recognized pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) can recognize lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria(More)
Thymol is a natural monoterpene phenol primarily found in thyme, oregano, and tangerine peel. It has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory property both in vivo and in vitro. In the present paper, we studied the anti-inflammatory effect of thymol in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse mammary epithelial cells (mMECs). The mMECs were stimulated with(More)
AIMS Geniposide, a major iridoid glycoside found in gardenia fruit, is widely used in Asian countries for its anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and anti-apoptotic activities. Although the anti-inflammatory effect of geniposide has been widely reported, its anti-apoptotic role in mastitis remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether geniposide(More)
Mastitis is an inflammatory disease caused by microbial infection. Staphylococcus aureus is the major etiological microorganism responsible for both clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cows. A mouse model of S. aureus mastitis is available. Baicalin is isolated from Scutellaria and is known to have anti-inflammatory properties. This study was(More)
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE Magnolia officinalis as a traditional Chinese herb has long been used for the treatment of anxiety, cough, headache and allergic diseases, and also have been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat a variety of mental disorders including depression. AIM OF THE STUDY Magnolol, a hydroxylated biphenyl compound isolated(More)