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This paper studies the fundamental determinants of crosscountry di¤erences in …nancial development. Two prominent tools for addressing model uncertainty, Bayesian Model Averaging and General-to-speci…c approaches, are jointly applied to investigate the …nancial development e¤ects of a wide range of variables taken from various sources. The analysis suggests(More)
Five spirobisnaphthalenes, namely palmarumycin CP17 (1), diepoxin kappa (2), diepoxin eta (3), diepoxin xi (4), and diepoxin gamma (5), were isolated from the endophytic fungus Dzf12 associated with the medicinal plant Dioscorea zingiberensis C. H. Wright. Their structures were identified by physicochemical and spectrometric analysis. Among these(More)
UNU-WIDER gratefully acknowledges specific programme contributions from the governments of Denmark (Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Danida) and Sweden (Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency—Sida) during the period 2011-13 for ReCom. UNU-WIDER also gratefully acknowledges core financial support to its work programme from the Preface This position(More)
1 COMMENTS ON TEXT BY TSU TO REVIEWER: This Chapter has been allocated 40 template pages, 2 currently it counts 49 pages (excluding this page and the bibliography), so it is 9 pages over target. 3 Reviewers are kindly asked to indicate where the chapter could be shortened.
In order to identify natural products for plant disease control, the essential oil of star anise (Illicium verum Hook. f.) fruit was investigated for its antifungal activity on plant pathogenic fungi. The fruit essential oil obtained by hydro-distillation was analyzed for its chemical composition by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass(More)
Two sterols and one fatty acid were obtained by bioassay-guided fractionation from the light petroleum extract of the fungus Fusarium sp. Ppf4 isolated from the rhizomes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis Hand.-Mazz., a medicinal species distributed in the southwest of China. The compounds were elucidated as 5alpha, 8alpha-epidioxyergosta-6,(More)
Volatile oils were obtained by hydro-distillation from Gliomastix murorum and Pichia guilliermondii, two endophytic fungi isolated from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The oils were analyzed for their chemical composition by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Palmitic acid (15.5%), (E)-9-octadecenoic acid(More)
An antimicrobial sesquiterpene was separated by bioassay-guided isolation from the petroleum ether fraction of the ethanol crude extract of Eucalyptus globulus Labill (Myrtaceae) fruits, and was identified as globulol by physicochemical properties and spectroscopic analysis. Mycelial growth method revealed that the median effective inhibitory concentration(More)
Using recently developed panel data techniques on data for 43 developing countries over the period 1970-98, this paper provides an exhaustive analysis of causality between aggregate private investment and …nancial development. GMM estimation on averaged data, and a common factor approach on annual data allowing for global interdependence and heterogeneity(More)