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Activation of brain melanocortin 4 receptors (MC4Rs) leads to reduced food intake, increased energy expenditure, increased insulin sensitivity, and reduced linear growth. MC4R effects on energy expenditure and glucose metabolism are primarily mediated by the G protein G(s)α in brain regions outside of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN).(More)
Cation chloride co-transporters, including K(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter 2 (KCC2) and Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter 1 (NKCC1), are of particular importance to GABAergic transmission and thus involved in the development of hyperalgesia at the spinal level. However, it is largely unknown whether these co-transporters in the trigeminal system contribute to(More)
AIM To investigate the effect of genistein on bone homeostasis in mandibular subchondral bone of rats. METHODS Female SD rats were administered with genistein (10 and 50 mg/kg) or placebo by oral gavage for 6 weeks. Then the animals were sacrificed, and histomorphology and micro-structure of mandibular condyle were examined using HE staining and micro-CT(More)
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