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AIM The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of genistein postconditioning on hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced injury in human gastric epithelial cells and to begin a tentative discussion on the mechanism behind this protection. METHODS A model of hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced injury was established in the human gastric epithelial cell(More)
OBJECT The neuroprotective effects of pituitary adenylate cyclise-activating polypeptide (PACAP) have been well documented in vivo and in vitro. However, the mechanisms by which PACAP protected microglia from ischemic/hypoxic injury via inhibition of microglia activation remain unclear. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a considerable role in the induction(More)
Microglia play an important role in neuronal protection and damage. However, the molecular and cellular relationship between microglia and neurons is unclear. We carried out a prospective study to detect that activation of BV2 microglia induced PC12 cell apoptosis in vitro through the TLR4/adapter protein myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)/nuclear(More)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is effective in reducing axonal damage associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI), and has immunomodulatory properties. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is an important mediator of the innate immune response. It significantly contributes to neuroinflammation induced by brain injury. However, it remains(More)
Opioid abuse and dependence have evolved into an international epidemic as a significant clinical and societal problem with devastating consequences. Repeated exposure to the opioid, for example morphine, can induce profound, long-lasting behavioral sensitization and physical dependence, which are thought to reflect neuroplasticity in neural circuitry.(More)
Abuse and dependence to heroin has evolved into a global epidemic as a significant clinical and societal problem with devastating consequences. Repeated exposure to heroin can induce long-lasting behavioral sensitization and withdrawal. Pharmacological activation of 5-HT2C receptors (5-HT2CRs) suppresses psychostimulant-induced drug-seeking and behavioral(More)
Chronic pain is still a basic science and clinical challenge. Unraveling of the neurobiological mechanisms involved in chronic pain will offer novel targets for the development of therapeutic strategies. It is well known that central sensitization in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) plays a critical role in initiation, development, and maintenance of(More)
Propofol exhibits neuroprotective effects against hypoxic–ischemic brain injury, but the underlying mechanisms are still not clear. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a considerable role in the induction of innate immune and inflammatory responses. The purposes of this study are to investigate the effect of propofol on the oxygen and glucose deprivation(More)
A rat model of gastric ischemia-reperfusion injury (GI-RI) was established by clamping the celiac artery for 30 min and allowing reperfusion for 1 h, on which the regulatory effect of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and its neural mechanisms were investigated. The results were: 1. Electrical stimulation of the PVN obviously attenuated the GI-RI.(More)
The effects of paraventricular nucleus (PVN) stimulation and vasopressin on gastric ischemia-reperfusion injury (GI-RI) were investigated in male SD rats of which the celiac artery was clamped for 30 min and reperfused for 1 h by removal of the clamp. The results were as follows. Both electrical and chemical stimulation of the PVN obviously attenuated the(More)