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BACKGROUND Although over 1400 Salmonella serovars cause usually self-limited gastroenteritis in humans, a few, e.g., Salmonella typhi and S. paratyphi C, cause typhoid, a potentially fatal systemic infection. It is not known whether the typhoid agents have evolved from a common ancestor (by divergent processes) or acquired similar pathogenic traits(More)
In a recent experiment, we discovered that liver tissue adjacent to HCC can also produce des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP). The goal of this study was to advance measurements of DCP levels in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and non-cancer tissues using an electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) and immunohistochemistry, and to assess their clinical(More)
Bacterial adaptation to changing environments can be achieved through the acquisition of genetic novelty by accumulation of mutations and recombination of laterally transferred genes into the genome, but the mismatch repair (MMR) system strongly inhibits both these types of genetic changes. As mutation and recombination do occur in bacteria, it is of(More)
Salmonella enterica serovar Agona is an important zoonotic pathogen, causing serious human illness worldwide, but knowledge about its genetics and evolution, especially regarding the genomic events that might have contributed to the formation of S. Agona as an important pathogen, is lacking. As a first step toward understanding this pathogen and(More)
Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP) is produced principally in fetal liver, gastrointestinal tract and the yolk sac which is temporarily present during embryonic development. AFP is overexpressed in the majority of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) and thus offers an attractive target for immunotherapy against this neoplasm. Here, we report that anti-HCC effects were(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Even though various experimental therapeutic approaches for chronic hepatitis B infection have been reported, few of them have been verified by clinical trials. We have developed an antigen-antibody (HBsAg-HBIG) immunogenic complex therapeutic vaccine candidate with alum as adjuvant (YIC), aimed at breaking immune tolerance to HBV by(More)
Basal metabolic rate (BMR) has been shown to be a highly flexible phenotypic trait both between and within species, but the physiological, biochemical and molecular mechanisms are still unclear. Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii) and Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) are two sympatric rodent species in Inner Mongolian grasslands of China. It has(More)
Salmonella virulence plasmids (VPs) contribute to pathogenesis during the systemic phase of infection. Only eight serovars have been found to contain VP, and the size of VP is unique to the host serovar, suggesting VPs are mainly transmitted vertically. According to this hypothesis, VPs should have the same phylogenetic relationships as the chromosomes(More)
AIM To investigate the therapeutic effect of autologous HBsAg-loaded dendritic cells (DCs) on patients with chronic hepatitis B. METHODS Monocytes were isolated from fresh peripheral blood of 19 chronic HBV-infected patients by Ficoll-Hypaque density gradient centrifugation and cultured by plastic-adherence methods. DCs were induced and proliferated in(More)
Salmonella paratyphi C is one of the few human-adapted pathogens along with S. typhi, S. paratyphi A and S. paratyphi B that cause typhoid, but it is not clear whether these bacteria cause the disease by the same or different pathogenic mechanisms. Notably, these typhoid agents have distinct sets of large genomic insertions, which may encode different(More)