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The transforming growth factor beta s (TGF-beta s) are a group of multifunctional growth factors which inhibit cell cycle progression in many cell types. The TGF-beta-induced cell cycle arrest has been partially attributed to the regulatory effects of TGF-beta on both the levels and the activities of the G1 cyclins and their kinase partners. The activities(More)
Nonpeptide agonists of each of the five somatostatin receptors were identified in combinatorial libraries constructed on the basis of molecular modeling of known peptide agonists. In vitro experiments using these selective compounds demonstrated the role of the somatostatin subtype-2 receptor in inhibition of glucagon release from mouse pancreatic alpha(More)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with primary and secondary injury. A thorough understanding of secondary injury will help to develop effective treatments and improve patient outcome. In this study, the GM model of controlled cortical impact injury (CCII) of Lighthall (1988) was used with modification to induce lateral TBI in rats. Forebrain(More)
Transfer RNA nucleotidyltransferases (CCA-adding enzymes) are responsible for the maturation or repair of the functional 3' end of tRNAs by means of the addition of the essential nucleotides CCA. However, it is unclear how tRNA nucleotidyltransferases polymerize CCA onto the 3' terminus of immature tRNAs without using a nucleic acid template. Here we(More)
The structural basis of the interaction between the CD4 coreceptor and a class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is described. The crystal structure of a complex containing the human CD4 N-terminal two-domain fragment and the murine I-A(k) class II MHC molecule with associated peptide (pMHCII) shows that only the "top corner" of the CD4 molecule(More)
A 42 kb region on human chromosome 9p21 encodes for three distinct tumor suppressors, p16(INK4A), p14(ARF) and p15(INK4B), and is altered in an estimated 30-40% of human tumors. The expression of the INK4A-ARF-INK4B gene cluster is silenced by polycomb during normal cell growth and is activated by oncogenic insults and during aging. How the polycomb is(More)
CCA-adding enzymes polymerize CCA onto the 3' terminus of immature tRNAs without using a nucleic acid template. The 3.0 A resolution crystal structures of the CCA-adding enzyme from Bacillus stearothermophilus and its complexes with ATP or CTP reveal a seahorse-shaped subunit consisting of four domains: head, neck, body, and tail. The head is structurally(More)
The crystal structure of a complex involving the D10 T cell receptor (TCR), 16-residue foreign peptide antigen, and the I-Ak self major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule is reported at 3.2 angstrom resolution. The D10 TCR is oriented in an orthogonal mode relative to its peptide-MHC (pMHC) ligand, necessitated by the amino-terminal(More)
INK4 and CIP/KIP are two distinct families of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors implicated in mediating a wide range of cell growth control signals. We have created p18(INK4c)-deficient mice. These mice develop gigantism and widespread organomegaly. The pituitary gland, spleen, and thymus are disproportionately enlarged and hyperplastic. T and B(More)
The TET (ten-eleven translocation) family of α-ketoglutarate (α-KG)-dependent dioxygenases catalyzes the sequential oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine and 5-carboxylcytosine, leading to eventual DNA demethylation. The TET2 gene is a bona fide tumor suppressor frequently mutated in leukemia, and TET enzyme(More)