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EmrD is a multidrug transporter from the Major Facilitator Superfamily that expels amphipathic compounds across the inner membrane of Escherichia coli. Here, we report the x-ray structure of EmrD determined to a resolution of 3.5 angstroms. The structure reveals an interior that is composed mostly of hydrophobic residues, which is consistent with its role(More)
Protein synthesis in neurons is essential for the consolidation of memory and for the stabilization of activity-dependent forms of synaptic plasticity such as long-term potentiation (LTP). Activity-dependent translation of dendritically localized mRNAs has been proposed to be a critical source of new proteins necessary for synaptic change. mRNA for the(More)
Genome evolution studies for the phylum Nematoda have been limited by focusing on comparisons involving Caenorhabditis elegans. We report a draft genome sequence of Trichinella spiralis, a food-borne zoonotic parasite, which is the most common cause of human trichinellosis. This parasitic nematode is an extant member of a clade that diverged early in the(More)
Netrins are secreted proteins that serve as potent axon guidance molecules in vertebrates and invertebrates. We report the identification of a novel mammalian member of this family. Netrin-4 is similar in predicted size and secondary structure to the other three netrins; all contain, in order, an amino-terminal signal sequence, a laminin-type globular(More)
Laminins and netrins are families of related secreted proteins known to play critical roles in guiding the growth of peripheral and central axons, respectively. Here we report the identification of two novel cell surface glycoproteins that we name laminets because they resemble both laminins and netrins. Laminet-1 and -2 are selectively expressed in(More)
BACKGROUND The nematode intestine is a major organ responsible for nutrient digestion and absorption; it is also involved in many other processes, such as reproduction, innate immunity, stress responses, and aging. The importance of the intestine as a target for the control of parasitic nematodes has been demonstrated. However, the lack of detailed(More)
In computed tomography of liver tumors there is often heterogeneous density, weak boundaries, and the liver tumors are surrounded by other abdominal structures with similar densities. These pose limitations to accurate the hepatic tumor segmentation. We propose a level set model incorporating likelihood energy with the edge energy. The minimization of the(More)
Increasing the in vivo residence times of protein therapeutics could decrease their dosing frequencies. We show that genetic fusion of an unstructured recombinant polypeptide of 864 amino acids, called XTEN, to a peptide or protein provides an apparently generic approach to extend plasma half-life. Allometric scaling suggests that a fusion of XTEN to the(More)
PURPOSE To determine the optimal method of using (18)F-fluorothymidine (FLT) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) simulation to delineate the gross tumor volume (GTV) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma verified by pathologic examination and compare the results with those using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT. METHODS AND(More)
Nematode.net (http://nematode.net) is a publicly available resource dedicated to the study of parasitic nematodes. In 2000, the Genome Center at Washington University (GC) joined a consortium including the Nematode Genomics group in Edinburgh, and the Pathogen Sequencing Unit of the Sanger Institute to generate expressed sequence tags (ESTs) as an(More)