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HIV-1 and related viruses require co-receptors, in addition to CD4, to infect target cells. The chemokine receptor CCR-5 (ref.1) was recently demonstrated to be a co-receptor for macrophage-tropic (M-tropic) HIV-1 strains, and the orphan receptor LESTR (also called fusin) allows infection by strains adapted for growth in transformed T-cell lines (T-tropic(More)
The activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1) is a type I receptor for transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family proteins. Expression of ALK1 in blood vessels and mutations of the ALK1 gene in human type II hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia patients suggest that ALK1 may have an important role during vascular development. To define the function of(More)
The Huntington's disease (HD) mutation is a polyglutamine expansion in the N-terminal region of huntingtin (N-htt). How neurons die in HD is unclear. Mutant N-htt aggregates in neurons in the HD brain; expression of mutant N-htt in vitro causes cell death. Other in vitro studies show that proteolysis by caspase 3 could be important in regulating mutant(More)
Eleven thousand, three hundred and seventy enhancer/promoter trap lines in Arabidopsis were generated via T-DNA transformation utilizing the binary vector pD991 that contains a minimal promoter fused to the uidA reporter gene. Overall 31% of the lines generated exhibit a staining pattern in the inflorescence. Flanking DNA has been cloned from 15 lines(More)
Huntingtin is a protein of unknown function that contains a polyglutamine tract, which is expanded in patients with Huntington's disease (HD). We investigated the localization and a potential function for huntingtin in the nucleus. In human fibroblasts from normal and HD patients, huntingtin localized diffusely in the nucleus and in subnuclear compartments(More)
Here we describe a protein product of the human septin H5/PNUTL2/CDCrel2b gene, which we call ARTS (for apoptosis-related protein in the TGF-beta signalling pathway). ARTS is expressed in many cells and acts to enhance cell death induced by TGF-beta or, to a lesser extent, by other apoptotic agents. Unlike related septin gene products, ARTS is localized to(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) requires both CD4 and a coreceptor to infect cells. Macrophage-tropic (M-tropic) HIV-1 strains utilize the chemokine receptor CCR5 in conjunction with CD4 to infect cells, while T-cell-tropic (T-tropic) strains generally utilize CXCR4 as a coreceptor. Some viruses can use both CCR5 and CXCR4 for virus entry (i.e.,(More)
Dual-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains infect both primary macrophages and transformed T-cell lines. Prototype T-cell line-tropic (T-tropic) strains use CXCR4 as their principal entry coreceptor (X4 strains), while macrophagetropic (M-tropic) strains use CCR5 (R5 strains). Prototype dual tropic strains use both coreceptors (R5X4(More)
Substance P (SP) is a potent modulator of neuroimmunoregulation. We recently reported that human immune cells express SP and its receptor. We have now investigated the possible role that SP and its receptor plays in HIV infection of human mononuclear phagocytes. SP enhanced HIV replication in human blood-isolated mononuclear phagocytes, whereas the(More)
Hepatitis B, one of the most common infectious diseases in the world, is closely associated with acute and chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Many clinical investigations have revealed that hepatic fibrosis is an important component of these liver diseases caused by chronic hepatitis B. TGF-beta signaling plays an important role in(More)