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The HIV-1 protein Nef inhibits antigen presentation by class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC-I). We determined the mechanism of this activity by solving the crystal structure of a protein complex comprising Nef, the MHC-I cytoplasmic domain (MHC-I CD) and the μ1 subunit of the clathrin adaptor protein complex 1. A ternary, cooperative interaction(More)
  • Yiling Fang, Hariharan Jayaram, Tania Shane, Ludmila Kolmakova-Partensky, Fang Wu, Carole Williams +2 others
  • 2009
To reach the mammalian gut, enteric bacteria must pass through the stomach. Many such organisms survive exposure to the harsh gastric environment (pH 1.5-4) by mounting extreme acid-resistance responses, one of which, the arginine-dependent system of Escherichia coli, has been studied at levels of cellular physiology, molecular genetics and protein(More)
—This paper proposes a coordinated defense scheme of distributed denial of service (DDoS) network attacks, based on the backward-propagation, on-off control strategy. When a DDoS attack is in effect, a high concentration of malicious packet streams are routed to the victim in a short time, making it a hot spot. A similar problem has been observed in(More)
CCA-adding enzymes polymerize CCA onto the 3' terminus of immature tRNAs without using a nucleic acid template. The 3.0 A resolution crystal structures of the CCA-adding enzyme from Bacillus stearothermophilus and its complexes with ATP or CTP reveal a seahorse-shaped subunit consisting of four domains: head, neck, body, and tail. The head is structurally(More)
SAMHD1, a dNTP triphosphohydrolase (dNTPase), has a key role in human innate immunity. It inhibits infection of blood cells by retroviruses, including HIV, and prevents the development of the autoinflammatory Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS). The inactive apo-SAMHD1 interconverts between monomers and dimers, and in the presence of dGTP the protein assembles(More)
  • Xiaofei Jia, Erin Weber, Andrey Tokarev, Mary Lewinski, Maryan Rizk, Marissa Suarez +2 others
  • 2014
BST2/tetherin, an antiviral restriction factor, inhibits the release of enveloped viruses from the cell surface. Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) antagonizes BST2 through viral protein u (Vpu), which downregulates BST2 from the cell surface. We report the crystal structure of a protein complex containing Vpu and BST2 cytoplasmic domains and the core(More)
In yeast, the whole metabolic pathway for making 16- and 18-carbon fatty acids is carried out by fatty acid synthase, a 2.6 megadalton molecular-weight macromolecular assembly containing six copies of all eight catalytic centers. We have determined its crystal structure, which illuminates how this enzyme is initially activated and then carries out multiple(More)
APOBEC3H (A3H) is a member of the APOBEC3 family of proteins with varying activities against retroviruses and retrotransposons. The A3H gene contains several single nucleotide polymorphisms and up to seven haplotypes have been detected in humans. Although variations in anti-viral function among A3H haplotypes are not fully understood, only(More)