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AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation has an antiapoptotic effect in endothelial cells, but the mechanisms involved remain unclear. Here, we investigated whether AMPK activation could inhibit palmitate-induced apoptosis through suppression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in bovine aortic endothelial cells. Palmitate increases ROS(More)
To evaluate whether metformin enhances leptin sensitivity, we measured leptin sensitivity after 4 weeks of metformin treatment (300 mg/kg daily) in both standard chow and high-fat-fed obese rats. Anorexic and fat-losing responses after intracerebroventricular leptin infusion for 7 days (15 microg daily per rat) in standard chow rats were enhanced by(More)
Osteoblast apoptosis reduces bone mineral density. Apoptosis can be induced in a variety of cells by palmitate, which is one of the most common saturated fatty acids in dietary fat. The AMPK activator, AICAR, has been shown to inhibit palmitate-induced apoptosis. However, the role of palmitate in osteoblast apoptosis is currently unknown. This study(More)
AIM/HYPOTHESIS Cluster determinant 36 (CD36), a fatty acid transporter, was reported to have a pivotal role in glucotoxicity-induced beta cell dysfunction. However, little is known about how glucotoxicity influences CD36 expression, and it is unknown whether this action can be counteracted by metformin. In the present study, we showed that metformin(More)
We assessed the time course effects of lipopolysaccaride (LPS) on food intake, cytokines, and hormones in rats and evaluated the relation between LPS-induced anorexia and its possible causative factors. Food intake was reduced 2 h after LPS injection (500 microg/kg, intraperitoneally) and remained decreased for 24 h. Plasma TNF-alpha and IL-6 levels(More)
The present study examined whether adiponectin can inhibit palmitate-induced apoptosis, and also the associated mechanisms and signal transduction pathways in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Cells treated with 500 μM palmitate for 48 h increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and induced apoptosis. Treatment with antioxidant(More)
This study examined whether IGF-binding protein 5 (IGFBP5) is involved in the high glucose-induced deteriorating effects in cardiac cells. Cardiac fibroblasts and cardiomyocytes were isolated from the hearts of 1- to 3-day-old Sprague Dawley rats. Treatment of fibroblasts with 25 mM glucose increased the number of cells and the mRNA levels of collagen III,(More)
Oxidative stress and inflammation are associated with skeletal muscle atrophy. Because the activation of toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 induces oxidative stress and inflammation, TLR2 may be directly linked to skeletal muscle atrophy. This study examined the role of TLR2 in skeletal muscle atrophy in wild-type (WT) and TLR2 knockout (KO) mice. Immobilization(More)
In the present study, we examined whether lipid infusion-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle could be reversed by the antioxidants tempol, glutathione (GSH), or tempol with GSH in male C57BL/6J mice via hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Lipid infusion increased the mRNA level of mitochondrial type superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), glutathione(More)