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Previous studies have suggested more than 20 genetic intervals that are associated with susceptibility to type 1 diabetes (T1D), but identification of specific genes has been challenging and largely limited to known candidate genes. Here, we report evidence for an association between T1D and multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 197 kb of genomic DNA(More)
Recent studies have suggested that a novel adipokine, C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related protein-3 (CTRP-3), a paralog of adiponectin, may play an important role in the regulation of glucose metabolism and innate immunity. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a multifunctional protein with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, is associated with(More)
CONTEXT Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic and vascular permeability factor, and its polymorphisms are associated with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and macular edema. OBJECTIVE We investigated the contributions of VEGF gene polymorphisms to nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) as well as PDR. DESIGN,(More)
Because otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) are transmitted from the cochlea to the ear canal via the middle ear, the transmission properties of the middle ear directly influence OAEs' characteristics. In general, middle-ear effusion (MEE) reduces measured emission amplitudes and sometimes eliminates the response entirely. The purpose of this study was to(More)
AIMS Insulin degludec/insulin aspart (IDegAsp) is a soluble co-formulation of IDeg and IAsp. This pan-Asian, 26-week trial investigated efficacy and safety of IDegAsp vs biphasic insulin aspart 30 (BIAsp 30) in Asian adults with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), inadequately controlled on once- or twice-daily (BID) basal, premixed or self-mixed insulin. METHODS(More)
In order for proteins to be used as pharmaceuticals, delivery technologies need to be developed to overcome biochemical and anatomical barriers to protein drug transport, to protect proteins from systemic degradation, and to target the drug action to specific sites. Protein transduction domains (PTDs) are used for the non-specific transduction of bio-active(More)
In an effort to discover non-HLA genes affecting susceptibility to type 1 diabetes (T1D), we have investigated the association of polymorphisms in STAT4, an important signaling molecule of IL-12, gammaIFN, and IL-23, in a sample of 389 T1D patients and 152 nondiabetic controls in Korea. Four SNPs on chromosome 2q, which were recently found to be associated(More)
We herein report cytotoxicity of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) on pancreatic beta cells. AGEs stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation but did not arrest proliferation of the INS-1 cell line. Pancreatic beta cell lines or primary cultured islets possess a receptor for AGE (RAGE), and its expression increased after AGE treatment. TUNEL(More)
Studies of animals with spontaneous autoimmune diabetes have revealed that autoreactive T cells that mediate islet beta cell destruction can be manipulated by the administration of Th(2) cytokines. Using gene delivery to express the targeted protein, we can overcome the need for frequent administration of cytokines on account of their short half-lives. In(More)