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Psychostimulant-induced alteration of dendritic spines on dopaminoceptive neurons in nucleus accumbens (NAcc) has been hypothesized as an adaptive neuronal response that is linked to long-lasting addictive behaviors. NAcc is largely composed of two distinct subpopulations of medium-sized spiny neurons expressing high levels of either dopamine D1 or D2(More)
WAVE1--the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP)--family verprolin homologous protein 1--is a key regulator of actin-dependent morphological processes in mammals, through its ability to activate the actin-related protein (Arp2/3) complex. Here we show that WAVE1 is phosphorylated at multiple sites by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) both in vitro and in(More)
PURPOSE Oral fluid (saliva) meets the demand for noninvasive, accessible, and highly efficient diagnostic medium. Recent discovery that a large panel of human RNA can be reliably detected in saliva gives rise to a novel clinical approach, salivary transcriptome diagnostics. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic value of this new approach(More)
Methylphenidate is the psychostimulant medication most commonly prescribed to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Recent trends in the high usage of methylphenidate for both therapeutic and nontherapeutic purposes prompted us to investigate the long-term effects of exposure to the drug on neuronal adaptation. We compared the effects of(More)
Caffeine has been imbibed since ancient times in tea and coffee, and more recently in colas. Caffeine owes its psychostimulant action to a blockade of adenosine A(2A) receptors, but little is known about its intracellular mechanism of action. Here we show that the stimulatory effect of caffeine on motor activity in mice was greatly reduced following genetic(More)
AIM To investigate the clinical implications of lipid deposition in the pancreas (fatty pancreas). METHODS The subjects of this study were 293 patients who had undergone abdominal computed tomography (CT) and sonography. Fatty pancreas was diagnosed by sonographic findings and subdivided into mild, moderate, and severe fatty pancreas groups comparing to(More)
The neurobiological underpinnings of mood and anxiety disorders have been linked to the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a region important in processing the rewarding and emotional salience of stimuli. Using chronic social defeat stress, an animal model of mood and anxiety disorders, we investigated whether alterations in synaptic plasticity are responsible for(More)
BACKGROUND In recent years, laboratory and clinical research has suggested the need for peritoneal dialysis fluids (PDFs) that are more biocompatible than the conventional PDFs commonly used today. Bioincompatibility of PDF has been attributed to low pH, lactate, glucose, glucose degradation products (GDPs), and osmolality. PDFs with neutral pH and low GDPs(More)
Improving the ability of the kidney to tolerate ischemic injury has important implications. We investigated the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) treatment on subsequent ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and evaluated the role of heat shock protein (HSP) 70 in rHuEPO-induced renal protection. rHuEPO (3000 U/kg) was administered 24 h before(More)
Stem cells, especially human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), are useful models to study molecular mechanisms of human disorders that originate during gestation. Alcohol (ethanol, EtOH) consumption during pregnancy causes a variety of prenatal and postnatal disorders collectively referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). To better understand the(More)