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Akt (protein kinase B, PKB) is one of the major downstream pathways of neurotrophin signaling and plays important roles in the cell survival and synaptic plasticity of the central nervous system. Electroconvulsive shock (ECS) has neurotrophic effect and it affects the synaptic plasticity. It can activate another major pathway of neurotrophin signaling,(More)
Haloperidol is a classical neuroleptic drug that is still in clinical use and can lead to abnormal motor activity following repeated administration. However, there is little knowledge of how it triggers neuronal impairment. In this study, we report that it induced calcium ion influx via L-type calcium channels and that the elevation of calcium ions induced(More)
Recent studies have suggested the involvement of Glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3 beta) in pathogenesis and treatment target of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, which led to consider GSK-3 beta as one of the candidate genes for those disorders. However, the association analysis between GSK-3 beta and either schizophrenia or bipolar disorder is yet(More)
We investigated the effect of 10 microM clozapine on the activity of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) and its upstream and downstream molecules in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Clozapine activates both Akt- and Dvl-mediated phosphorylation of GSK-3beta through phosphorylation at Ser9, and increased total cellular and intranuclear levels of(More)
We conducted a study on the mechanism of KAI1/CD82-mediated suppression of tumor invasiveness and metastasis, and examined its effect on MMP-9 activity and the TIMP1 levels in H1299 human non-small cell lung carcinoma cells. The H1299 human lung carcinoma cells were transfected with pcDNA3.1-CD82 and stable transfectant clones that had a high KAI1/CD82(More)
OBJECTIVE Submucosal injection is used to prevent complications, such as perforation, during endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). Since injection of normal saline produces mucosal elevation of short duration, repeated injection is needed for extensive resection. To overcome this limitation, various submucosal injection solutions have been developed but there(More)
Success rate of cecal intubation, endoscopist’s difficulty, and procedure-related patient pain are still problems for beginners performing colonoscopy. New methods to aid colonoscopic insertion such as warm water instillation and oil lubrication have been proposed. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using warm water or oil in(More)
What is the most effective treatment for the early stages of osteonecrosis of the femoral head? We assessed multiple drilling and stem cell implantation to treat the early stages of osteonecrosis of the femoral head. We report the clinical and radiological results of stem cell implantation and core decompression. In total, 128 patients (190 hips) who had(More)
Using a mouse model of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced Parkinson's disease (PD), this study investigated on the neuroprotective effects of acupuncture by examining whether acupuncture contributed to inhibiting microglial activation and inflammatory events. C57BL/6 mice were treated with MPTP (30 mg/kg, i.p.) for 5 consecutive(More)
OBJECTIVE Inadequate response to clozapine poses a substantial problem in the pharmaco-therapy of refractory schizophrenia. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole augmentation in clozapine-treated patients with refractory schizophrenia. METHOD Patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia who had a(More)