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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a paralytic and usually fatal disorder caused by motor-neuron degeneration in the brain and spinal cord. Most cases of ALS are sporadic but about 5-10% are familial. Mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), TAR DNA-binding protein (TARDBP, also known as TDP43) and fused in sarcoma (FUS, also known as translocated in(More)
In humans and many other mammals, the cortex (the outer layer of the brain) folds during development. The mechanics of folding are not well understood; leading explanations are either incomplete or at odds with physical measurements. We propose a mathematical model in which (i) folding is driven by tangential expansion of the cortex and (ii) deeper layers(More)
Apoptosis is an essential process in the development and homeostasis of all metazoans. The inhibitor-of-apoptosis (IAP) proteins suppress cell death by inhibiting the activity of caspases; this inhibition is performed by the zinc-binding BIR domains of the IAP proteins. The mitochondrial protein Smac/DIABLO promotes apoptosis by eliminating the inhibitory(More)
Apoptosis (programmed cell death), an essential process in the development and homeostasis of metazoans, is carried out by caspases. The mitochondrial protein Smac/DIABLO performs a critical function in apoptosis by eliminating the inhibitory effect of IAPs (inhibitor of apoptosis proteins) on caspases. Here we show that Smac/DIABLO promotes not only the(More)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be isolated from almost all tissues and effectively expanded in vitro. Although their true in situ properties and biological functions remain to be elucidated, these in vitro expanded cells have been shown to possess potential to differentiate into specific cell lineages. It is speculated that MSCs in situ have important(More)
The Smad proteins mediate transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) signaling from the transmembrane serine-threonine receptor kinases to the nucleus. The Smad anchor for receptor activation (SARA) recruits Smad2 to the TGFbeta receptors for phosphorylation. The crystal structure of a Smad2 MH2 domain in complex with the Smad-binding domain (SBD) of SARA(More)
Video shot boundary detection (SBD) is the first and essential step for content-based video management and structural analysis. Great efforts have been paid to develop SBD algorithms for years. However, the high computational cost in the SBD becomes a block for further applications such as video indexing, browsing, retrieval, and representation. Motivated(More)
Caspase-9-mediated apoptosis (programmed cell death) plays a central role in the development and homeostasis of all multicellular organisms. Mature caspase-9 is derived from its procaspase precursor as a result of recruitment by the activating factor Apaf-1. The crystal structures of the caspase-recruitment domain of Apaf-1 by itself and in complex with the(More)
BACKGROUND The SQSTM1 gene encodes p62, a major pathologic protein involved in neurodegeneration. OBJECTIVE To examine whether SQSTM1 mutations contribute to familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). DESIGN Case-control study. SETTING Academic research. Patients  A cohort of 546 patients with familial (n = 340) or sporadic (n = 206)(More)
Despite the rapid development, the field of Data mining and knowledge discovery (DMKD) is still vaguely defined and lack of integrated descriptions. This situation causes difficulties in teaching, learning, research, and application. This article surveys a large collection of DMKD literature to provide a comprehensive picture of current DMKD research and(More)