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Somaclonal variation is manifested as cytological abnormalities, frequent qualitative and quantitative phenotypic mutation, sequence change, and gene activation and silencing. Activation of quiescent transposable elements and retrotransposons indicate that epigenetic changes occur through the culture process. Epigenetic activation of DNA elements further(More)
Phishing attacks, in which criminals lure Internet users to websites that impersonate legitimate sites, are occurring with increasing frequency and are causing considerable harm to victims. In this paper we describe the design and evaluation of an embedded training email system that teaches people about phishing during their normal use of email. We(More)
Notocactus scopa cv. Soonjung was subjected to in planta Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation with vacuum infiltration, pin-pricking, and a combination of the two methods. The pin-pricking combined with vacuum infiltration (20–30 cmHg for 15 min) resulted in a transformation efficiency of 67–100%, and the expression of the uidA and nptII genes(More)
Plants regenerated from tissue culture often display somaclonal variation, that is, somatic and often meiotically heritable phenotypic variation that can result from both genetic and epigenetic modifications. To better understand the molecular basis of somaclonal variation, we have characterized four unique tissue culture-derived epialleles of the pericarp(More)
Seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana (cv. Columbia) were used to evaluate dynamic transcriptional-level genome responses to simulated microgravity condition created by 3-D clinorotation. The DNA chip data analysis showed that the plant may respond to simulated microgravity by dynamic induction (up- and down-regulations) of the responsive genes in the genome.(More)
Cotyledon explants of two Oriental melons produced hairy roots when cultured on Murashige and Skoog basal medium after infection by the Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Hairy roots were produced from the wounded surface of the cotyledon explants of Cucumis melo L. cv. Geumssaragi-euncheon on Murashige and Skoog selective medium and 86% of the GUS stained hairy(More)
We developed an asexual reproductive plant, Kalanchoe pinnata, as a new bioreactor for plant-based molecular farming using a newly developed transformation method. Leaf crenate margins were pin-pricked to infect the plant with the Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 and vacuum infiltration was also applied to introduce the target gene into the plants.(More)
Bioassays and biomarkers have been previously developed to assess the effects of heavy metal contaminants on the early life stages of the sea urchin. In this study, malformation in the early developmental processes was observed in sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus intermedius) larvae exposed to 10 ppm Ni for over 30 h. The most critical stage at which the(More)
Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd), the smallest plant pathogen known to infect chrysanthemums, is a single-stranded circular RNA viroid that induces stunting that results in an overall height reduction of 30–50 % in mature plants. A catalytic single-chain variable antibody, 3D8 scFv, which exhibits intrinsic DNase and RNase activities, was expressed in(More)
Taken together, this study suggests that potato D-type cyclin genes are expressed differentially between in vitro and planta caused by intrinsic differences in physiology and gene action at the cellular and whole organism levels. Cyclin performs a pivotal role in control of the cell cycle by forming a complex with cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). In this(More)