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Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that play the major role in signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. MAPKs, which consist of growth factor-regulated extracellular signal-related kinases (ERKs), and the stress-activated MAPKs, c-jun NH(2)-terminal kinases (JNKs) and p38 MAPKs, are part of a(More)
Metabolic diseases, such as insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and obesity, are associated with a low-grade chronic inflammation (inflammatory stress), oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Because the integration of these stresses is critical to the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases, agents and cellular molecules that can modulate(More)
Originally identified as a rate-limiting enzyme for heme catabolism, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has expanded its roles in anti-inflammation, anti-apoptosis and anti-proliferation for the last decade. Regulation of protein activity by location is well appreciated. Even though multiple compartmentalization of HO-1 has been documented, the functional implication(More)
There are three well-defined subgroups of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs): the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), the c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), and the p38 MAPKs. Three subgroups of MAPKs are involved in both cell growth and cell death, and the tight regulation of these pathways, therefore, is paramount in determining cell fate.(More)
Beyond its vasodilator role, vascular nitric oxide (NO), which is synthesized by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) via its activation, has been shown to play a number of other beneficial roles in the vascular system; it inhibits proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells, prevents platelet aggregation, and regulates endothelial apoptosis. Such beneficial(More)
Neuronal cell death caused by oxidative stress is common in a variety of neural diseases and can be investigated in detail in cultured HT22 neuronal cells, where the amino acid glutamate at high concentrations causes glutathione depletion by inhibition of the glutamate/cystine antiporter system, intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)(More)
Abietic acid (AA), the main component of the rosin fraction of oleoresin synthesized by conifer species, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects. AA is a weak contact allergen; however, compounds resulting from its oxidation by air elicit stronger allergic response. Hydrogenation of the conjugated double bonds of AA, as in tetrahydroabietic acid(More)
Growing evidence suggests that the elevation of free fatty acids, including palmitic acid (PA), are associated with inflammation and oxidative stress, which may be involved in endothelial dysfunction, characterized by the reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) synthesized from endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is important in the(More)
Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), an endogenous ligand for opioid receptor-like (ORL1) receptor, transduces signaling cascades implicated in MAPK, PKC, PLC, and calcium, etc. This study was designed to investigate the intracellular signaling mechanism of N/OFQ in human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. N/OFQ rapidly induced the phosphorylation of(More)
Resveratrol (Res) and its two natural analogs that are also related to Res metabolism, piceatannol (Pic) and 3,5,4'-trans-trimethoxystilbene (TMS), were compared in their ability to suppress lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of proinflammatory tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and to induce anti-inflammatory heme(More)