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Network topologies are not only continuously growing, but many devices become mobile and some sort of guaranteed quality of service (QoS) is now required. In order to efficiently deal with the changing traffic loads and topologies, reduce the phenomena of congestions, this paper describes a new adaptive dynamic routing algorithm for packet-switched(More)
Mammalian embryos have an intimate relationship with their mothers, particularly with the placental vasculature from which embryos obtain nutrients essential for growth. It is an interesting vascular bed because maternal vessel number and diameter change dramatically during gestation and, in rodents and primates, the terminal blood space becomes lined by(More)
MOTIVATION Many biological systems operate in a similar manner across a large number of species or conditions. Cross-species analysis of sequence and interaction data is often applied to determine the function of new genes. In contrast to these static measurements, microarrays measure the dynamic, condition-specific response of complex biological systems.(More)
We previously showed that macrophages (MΦs) infiltrate the bone marrow (BM) of patients with myeloma and may play a role in drug resistance. This study analyzed chemokines expressed by myeloma BM that are responsible for recruiting monocytes to the tumor bed. We found that chemokines CCL3, CCL14, and CCL2 were highly expressed by myeloma and BM cells, and(More)
abStraCt Computer crime hackers have been identified as a primary threat to computer systems, users, and organizations. Much extant research on hackers is conducted from a technical perspective and at an individual level of analysis. This research empirically examines the social organization of a hacker community by analyzing one network called Shadowcrew.(More)
The innate immune response is the first line of host defense against infections. This system employs a number of different types of cells, which in turn activate different sets of genes. Microarray studies of human and mouse cells infected with various pathogens identified hundreds of differentially expressed genes. However, combining these datasets to(More)
The temporal characteristics and functional diversity of GABAergic inhibition are determined by the spatiotemporal neurotransmitter profile, intrinsic properties of GABAA receptors, and other factors. Here, we report two distinct GABAA responses and the underlying mechanisms in neurons of the chicken nucleus laminaris (NL), the first encoder of interaural(More)
What are middle school students' attitudes toward digital cheating and plagiarism? To answer the question, an empirical study was conducted in three middle schools using multiple focus groups and interviews. Students participated in the focus groups, and teachers, and parents participated in interviews. The study found that peer culture contributed to the(More)
During a critical period prior to hearing onset, cochlea ablation leads to massive neuronal death in the mouse anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN), where cell survival is believed to depend on glutamatergic input. We investigated the development of spontaneous miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) in AVCN neurons using whole cell patch-clamp(More)