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The effects of diclofenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), on the fast tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-S) and the slow tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) sodium currents in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons were investigated using the whole-cell patch-clamp method. Diclofenac suppressed both sodium currents in a dose-dependent manner. The apparent(More)
Opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore has been recognized to be involved in cell death. The present study investigated the effect of trifluoperazine and W-7 on the MPP+-induced mitochondrial damage and cell death in undifferentiated PC12 cells. Calmodulin antagonists (trifluoperazine, W-7 and calmidazolium) at 0.5-1 microM significantly(More)
Anandamide, the ethanolamide of arachidonic acid, is an endogenous cannabinoid. It is an agonist at CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors as well as the vanilloid receptor, VR1. It is analgesic in inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Both central and peripheral mechanisms are considered to participate in its analgesia. Primary sensory neurons express Na+ currents(More)
The effects of various nucleotides on the fast tetrodotoxin-sensitive (f-TTX-S) and the slow tetrodotoxin-resistant (s-TTX-R) sodium currents in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons were investigated using the patch-clamp technique. Nucleoside triphosphates (NTPs; ATP, GTP, UTP and CTP) and nucleoside diphosphates (NDPs; ADP, GDP, UDP and CDP) decreased(More)
Free fatty acids (FFAs), especially polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), are potent modulators of muscle-type sodium channels. It is not known if they also modulate sodium channels of sensory neurons. In this study, we investigated the effects of FFAs on the fast tetrodotoxin-sensitive (fTTX-S) and the slow tetrodotoxin-resistant (sTTX-R) sodium currents in(More)
BACKGROUND Platelet-activating factor (PAF) has been long believed to be associated with many pathophysiological processes during septic shock. Here we present novel activities for PAF in protecting mice against LPS-mediated endotoxic shock. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS In vivo PAF treatment immediately after LPS challenge markedly improved the survival rate(More)
In this study, we show that Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis MAP1305 induces the maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs), a representative antigen presenting cell (APC). MAP1305 protein induces DC maturation and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (Interleukin (IL)-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-1β) through(More)
The effects of arachidonic acid on tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-S) and tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) sodium currents in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons were assessed using the whole-cell patch-clamp method. Both sodium currents were modulated in a similar way by extracellular application of arachidonic acid. Arachidonic acid increased the currents at lower(More)
Celecoxib is a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor used in the treatment of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis with fewer gastrointestinal toxicities compared to traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Voltage-gated Na(+) channels in primary sensory neurons play an important role in the pathogenesis of various pain conditions. We(More)
BACKGROUND Typhoid, which is caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, remains a major health concern worldwide. Multidrug-resistant strains of Salmonella have emerged which exhibit increased survivability and virulence, thus leading to increased morbidity. However, little is known about the protective immune response against this microorganism.(More)