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The effects of diclofenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), on the fast tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-S) and the slow tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) sodium currents in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons were investigated using the whole-cell patch-clamp method. Diclofenac suppressed both sodium currents in a dose-dependent manner. The apparent(More)
Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 is expressed in a variety of conditions involved in the regulation of immune responses. In this study, we examined the role of HO-1 in dendritic cell (DC) maturation and expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), a key enzyme that catalyzes the initial, rate-limiting step in tryptophan degradation. IDO deficiency led to(More)
Celecoxib is a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor used in the treatment of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis with fewer gastrointestinal toxicities compared to traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Voltage-gated Na(+) channels in primary sensory neurons play an important role in the pathogenesis of various pain conditions. We(More)
Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane proteins (Omps) have an important role in pathogenesis and signal reception. We previously reported that Acinetobacter OmpA (AbOmpA) induced maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and that AbOmpA-primed DCs produced IL-12 which generated Th1 CD4(+) T-cells. We analyzed the effects of Salmonella(More)
d-pinitol has been demonstrated to exert insulin-like and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the effects of the maturation and immunostimulatory functions of dendritic cells (DC) remain to be clearly elucidated. In this study, we have attempted to determine whether d-pinitol regulates surface molecule expression, cytokine production, endocytosis capacity,(More)
Opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore has been recognized to be involved in cell death. The present study investigated the effect of trifluoperazine and W-7 on the MPP+-induced mitochondrial damage and cell death in undifferentiated PC12 cells. Calmodulin antagonists (trifluoperazine, W-7 and calmidazolium) at 0.5-1 microM significantly(More)
Anandamide, the ethanolamide of arachidonic acid, is an endogenous cannabinoid. It is an agonist at CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors as well as the vanilloid receptor, VR1. It is analgesic in inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Both central and peripheral mechanisms are considered to participate in its analgesia. Primary sensory neurons express Na+ currents(More)
This study was carried out to investigate the wound healing effect of caffeic acid in skin-incised mice. Caffeic acid showed significant effects on anti-inflammatory activity and wound healing, such as myeloperoxidase activity, lipid peroxidation, phospholipase A(2) activity and collagen-like polymer synthesis, in incised-wound tissue. On the other hand, it(More)
The present study examined the effects of ambroxol and erdosteine, bronchial expectorants, on the cytokine synthesis, granule enzyme release, and free radical production in rat alveolar macrophages activated by lipopolysaccharide. Ambroxol and erdosteine significantly decreased the production of tumour necrosis factors-alpha, interleukin-1beta, and(More)
The effects of various nucleotides on the fast tetrodotoxin-sensitive (f-TTX-S) and the slow tetrodotoxin-resistant (s-TTX-R) sodium currents in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons were investigated using the patch-clamp technique. Nucleoside triphosphates (NTPs; ATP, GTP, UTP and CTP) and nucleoside diphosphates (NDPs; ADP, GDP, UDP and CDP) decreased(More)