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BACKGROUND Cichlid fish from East Africa are remarkable for phenotypic and behavioral diversity on a backdrop of genomic similarity. In 2006, the Joint Genome Institute completed low coverage survey sequencing of the genomes of five phenotypically and ecologically diverse Lake Malawi species. We report a computational and comparative analysis of these data(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ancient, short noncoding RNA molecules that regulate the transcriptome through post-transcriptional mechanisms. miRNA riboregulation is involved in a diverse range of biological processes, and misregulation is implicated in disease. It is generally thought that miRNAs function to canalize cellular outputs, for instance as "fail-safe"(More)
Cichlid fishes have evolved tremendous morphological and behavioral diversity in the waters of East Africa. Within each of the Great Lakes Tanganyika, Malawi, and Victoria, the phenomena of hybridization and retention of ancestral polymorphism explain allele sharing across species. Here, we explore the sharing of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)(More)
We have investigated intron evolution in the compact genomes of 2 closely related species of pufferfishes, Fugu rubripes and Tetraodon nigroviridis, that diverged about 32 million years ago (MYA). Analysis of 148,028 aligned intron positions in 13,547 gene pairs using human as an outgroup identified 57 and 24 intron losses in Tetraodon and fugu lineages,(More)
Owing to their phylogenetic position, cartilaginous fishes (sharks, rays, skates, and chimaeras) provide a critical reference for our understanding of vertebrate genome evolution. The relatively small genome of the elephant shark, Callorhinchus milii, a chimaera, makes it an attractive model cartilaginous fish genome for whole-genome sequencing and(More)
Cartilaginous fishes represent the living group of jawed vertebrates that diverged from the common ancestor of human and teleost fish lineages about 530 million years ago. We generated approximately 1.4x genome sequence coverage for a cartilaginous fish, the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii), and compared this genome with the human genome to identify(More)
Differences in brain region size among species are thought to arise late in development via adaptive control over neurogenesis, as cells of previously patterned compartments proliferate, die, and/or differentiate into neurons. Here we investigate comparative brain development in ecologically distinct cichlid fishes from Lake Malawi and demonstrate that(More)
We analysed over 8 million base pairs of bacterial artificial chromosome-based sequence alignments of four Old World monkeys and the human genome. Our findings are as follows. (i) Genomic divergences among several Old World monkeys mirror those between well-studied hominoids. (ii) The X-chromosome evolves slower than autosomes, in accord with 'male-driven(More)
The optimal coordination of the transcriptional response of host cells to infection is essential for establishing appropriate immunological outcomes. In this context, the role of microRNAs (miRNAs)--important epigenetic regulators of gene expression--in regulating mammalian immune systems is increasingly well recognised. However, the expression dynamics of(More)
BACKGROUND Divergence within cis-regulatory sequences may contribute to the adaptive evolution of gene expression, but functional alleles in these regions are difficult to identify without abundant genomic resources. Among African cichlid fishes, the differential expression of seven opsin genes has produced adaptive differences in visual sensitivity.(More)