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By using improved methods for in situ hybridization to detect expression of androgen receptor (AR) mRNA, the distribution of expression was mapped in the adult male zebra finch brain. In the neural song circuit, robust expression was found in area X of the lobus parolfactorius (LPO) as well as in other song regions previously reported. Expression was also(More)
BACKGROUND Despite virtually identical DNA sequences between the sexes, sexual dimorphism is a widespread phenomenon in nature. To a large extent the systematic differences between the sexes must therefore arise from processes involving gene regulation. In accordance, sexual dimorphism in gene expression is common and extensive. Genes with sexually(More)
Mutations in the gene encoding methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) are the primary cause of the neurodevelopmental disorder Rett syndrome (RTT). Mecp2-deficient mice develop a neurological phenotype that recapitulates many of the symptoms of RTT, including postnatal onset of the neurological deficits. MeCP2 has two isoforms, MeCP2e1 and MeCP2e2, with(More)
The brains of males and females differ, not only in regions specialized for reproduction, but also in other regions (controlling cognition, for example) where sex differences are not necessarily expected. Moreover, males and females are differentially susceptible to neurological and psychiatric disease. What are the origins of these sex differences? Two(More)
Lithium has recently been suggested to have neuroprotective properties in relation to several neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we examined the potential cytoprotective effect of lithium in preventing oxidative stress-induced protein accumulation and neuronal cell death in the presence of increased α-synuclein levels in vitro and in vivo.(More)
Lithium, the long-standing hallmark treatment for bipolar disorder, has recently been identified as a potential neuroprotective agent in neurodegeneration. Here we focus on introducing numerous in vitro and in vivo studies that have shown lithium treatment to be efficacious in reducing oxidative stress and inflammation, increasing autophagy, inhibiting(More)
Using in situ hybridization to detect the expression of the retinoic acid synthesizing enzyme (retinaldehyde dehydrogenase: zRalDH) mRNA, we mapped the distribution of its expression in adult zebra finch brain. In the neural song circuit, strong expression was found in high vocal center (HVC), para-HVC, and at a very low level in the robust nucleus of the(More)
Due to the role of sex steroids, namely testosterone (T), in the development and production of song in songbirds, androgen receptor (AR) densities in the brain regions controlling this behavior (i.e., the song control system) have long been studied. Many methods have been used to determine AR density and location to investigate the functional role of T in(More)
We used in situ hybridization to measure the expression of NGF and trkA mRNA in the zebra finch brain at posthatch day 11 (P11), P25, and in adulthood. Expression of NGF and trkA was restricted to specific areas of the telencephalon in the adult zebra finch brain. Interestingly the expression of NGF and trkA overlapped in most brain regions, suggesting that(More)
Using in situ hybridization, we measured the distribution of expression of doublecortin (DCX), a microtubule-associated protein, in zebra finch adult and nestling (P9-11) brains. In adult brain, DCX mRNA was detected mainly in the mesopallium (M), medial striatum (MSt), septum, Area X, diencephalon, telencephalic subventricular zone (SVZ), and Purkinje(More)