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Purpose. To investigate the specific role of Pinin (Pnn) in the development of anterior eye segment in mice. Methods. Conditional inactivation of Pnn in the developing surface eye ectoderm and lens was achieved by creating mice carrying a Pnn null and a floxed Pnn allele as well as a Pax6-Cre-GFP (Le-Cre) transgene. The resultant Pnn conditional knockout(More)
Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) refers to a vascular anomaly where arteries and veins are directly connected through a complex, tangled web of abnormal AV fistulae without a normal capillary network. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) types 1 and 2 arise from heterozygous mutations in endoglin (ENG) and activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1),(More)
Recent advances in nanotechnology have enabled the development of nanoscale sensors that outperform conventional biosensors. This review summarizes the nanoscale biosensors that use aptamers as molecular recognition elements. The advantages of aptamers over antibodies as sensors are highlighted. These advantages are especially apparent with electrical(More)
Bufonid anurans of the genus Atelopus contain both steroidal bufadienolides and various guanidinium alkaloids of the tetrodotoxin class. The former inhibit sodium-potassium ATPases, whereas the latter block voltage-dependent sodium channels. The structure of one guanidinium alkaloid, zetekitoxin AB, has remained a mystery for over 30 years. The structure of(More)
Transplantation of neural stem cells has been reported as a possible approach for replacing impaired dopaminergic neurons. In this study, we tested the efficacy of early-stage human dental papilla-derived stem cells and human brain-derived neural stem cells in rat models of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced Parkinson's disease. Rats received a unilateral injection(More)
Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT) is a genetic vascular disease in which arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) manifest in skin and multiple visceral organs. HHT is caused by heterozygous mutations in endoglin (ENG), activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1), or SMAD4. ALK1 regulates angiogenesis, but the precise function of ALK1 in endothelial cells(More)
BACKGROUND The inhibition of neuronal activity by electrical deep brain stimulation is one of the mechanisms explaining the therapeutic effects in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) but cannot specifically activate or inactivate different types of neurons. Recently, a new technology based on optogenetics has been developed to modulate the activity of(More)