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By using improved methods for in situ hybridization to detect expression of androgen receptor (AR) mRNA, the distribution of expression was mapped in the adult male zebra finch brain. In the neural song circuit, robust expression was found in area X of the lobus parolfactorius (LPO) as well as in other song regions previously reported. Expression was also(More)
BACKGROUND Despite virtually identical DNA sequences between the sexes, sexual dimorphism is a widespread phenomenon in nature. To a large extent the systematic differences between the sexes must therefore arise from processes involving gene regulation. In accordance, sexual dimorphism in gene expression is common and extensive. Genes with sexually(More)
Mutations in the gene encoding methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) are the primary cause of the neurodevelopmental disorder Rett syndrome (RTT). Mecp2-deficient mice develop a neurological phenotype that recapitulates many of the symptoms of RTT, including postnatal onset of the neurological deficits. MeCP2 has two isoforms, MeCP2e1 and MeCP2e2, with(More)
The brains of males and females differ, not only in regions specialized for reproduction, but also in other regions (controlling cognition, for example) where sex differences are not necessarily expected. Moreover, males and females are differentially susceptible to neurological and psychiatric disease. What are the origins of these sex differences? Two(More)
Lithium has recently been suggested to have neuroprotective properties in relation to several neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we examined the potential cytoprotective effect of lithium in preventing oxidative stress-induced protein accumulation and neuronal cell death in the presence of increased α-synuclein levels in vitro and in vivo.(More)
Lithium has long been used as a treatment for the psychiatric disease bipolar disorder. However, previous studies suggest that lithium provides neuroprotective effects in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease. The exact mechanism by which lithium exerts these effects still remains unclear. In the present study,(More)
Lithium, the long-standing hallmark treatment for bipolar disorder, has recently been identified as a potential neuroprotective agent in neurodegeneration. Here we focus on introducing numerous in vitro and in vivo studies that have shown lithium treatment to be efficacious in reducing oxidative stress and inflammation, increasing autophagy, inhibiting(More)