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By using improved methods for in situ hybridization to detect expression of androgen receptor (AR) mRNA, the distribution of expression was mapped in the adult male zebra finch brain. In the neural song circuit, robust expression was found in area X of the lobus parolfactorius (LPO) as well as in other song regions previously reported. Expression was also(More)
BACKGROUND Despite virtually identical DNA sequences between the sexes, sexual dimorphism is a widespread phenomenon in nature. To a large extent the systematic differences between the sexes must therefore arise from processes involving gene regulation. In accordance, sexual dimorphism in gene expression is common and extensive. Genes with sexually(More)
BACKGROUND In this study we compared the surgical management of ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) by revascularization alone and by revascularization combined with mitral valve repair. METHODS We studied 355 patients who underwent revascularization alone (n = 168) or revascularization combined with mitral valve repair (n = 187) for IMR from March 1994(More)
We compared global patterns of gene expression between two bird species, the chicken and zebra finch, with regard to sex bias of autosomal versus Z chromosome genes, dosage compensation, and evolution of sex bias. Both species appear to lack a Z chromosome-wide mechanism of dosage compensation, because both have a similar pattern of significantly higher(More)
Mutations in the gene encoding methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) are the primary cause of the neurodevelopmental disorder Rett syndrome (RTT). Mecp2-deficient mice develop a neurological phenotype that recapitulates many of the symptoms of RTT, including postnatal onset of the neurological deficits. MeCP2 has two isoforms, MeCP2e1 and MeCP2e2, with(More)
The brains of males and females differ, not only in regions specialized for reproduction, but also in other regions (controlling cognition, for example) where sex differences are not necessarily expected. Moreover, males and females are differentially susceptible to neurological and psychiatric disease. What are the origins of these sex differences? Two(More)
Phage display technology has been applied in many fields of biological and medical sciences to study molecular interactions and especially in the generation of monoclonal antibodies of human origin. However, extremely low display level of antibody molecules on the surface of phage is an intrinsic problem of a phagemid-based display system resulting in low(More)
Antigenic proteins of Neospora caninum (N. caninum) against bovine immunoglobulins M, E, A, and G were investigated by using immunoproteomics. Proteins of N. caninum (KBA-2) tachyzoite lysates separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis were transferred to polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes, probed with different bovine immunoglobulin class and(More)
Escherichia coli (E. coli) has ability to express thin aggregative fimbriae, known as curli, on the cell surface. Previously, a few example of curli expression in serogroup O157:H7 of enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) were reported, compared to other E. coli groups. However, significance of curliation in the EHEC pathobiology has not been described well in(More)
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in effluents from sewage and human-wastes treatment plants (STPEs and HWTPEs) was fractionated using resin adsorbents into six classes: aquatic humic substances (AHS), hydrophobic bases (HoB), hydrophobic neutrals (HoN), hydrophilic acids (HiA), hydrophilic bases (HiB), and hydrophilic neutrals (HiN). DOM-fraction distribution(More)