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—The tipping-curve calibration method has been an important calibration technique for ground-based microwave ra-diometers that measure atmospheric emission at low optical depth. The method calibrates a radiometer system using data taken by the radiometer at two or more viewing angles in the atmosphere. In this method, the relationship between atmospheric(More)
We have developed a tunable temperature profiler based on a highly stable synthesizer that can observe at multiple frequencies on the shoulder of the 60 GHz atmospheric oxygen feature. We are developing a similar radiometer to obtain the vertical distribution of water vapor by making observations on the pressure broadened water vapor line from 22 to 29 GHz.(More)
We investigated a variety of factors that influence the determination of precipitable water vapor (V) and integrated cloud liquid (L) by dual-channel microwave radiometers (MWRs). These factors include radiometric calibration; dry, water vapor, and liquid absorption coefficients; and physical versus statistical retrieval methods. We then applied the(More)
There is intensive gap-junctional coupling between glial processes, but their significance in sensory functions remains unknown. Connexin-43 (Cx43), a major component of astrocytic gap-junction channels, is abundantly expressed in astrocytes. To investigate the role of Cx43-mediated gap junctions between astrocytes in sensory functions, we generated Cx43(More)
—We discuss the performances of a set of four microwave water vapor radiometers operating in the 20–30-GHz band during a field experiment, with an emphasis on calibration and achievable accuracy. The field experiment was conducted at the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's field site in north central Oklahoma, and was focused(More)
Crop production is adversely affected by soil salinization and therefore, development of crop cultivars with salt tolerance is crucial for better utilization of saline soil and enhancement of sustainable agricultural productivity. High salt concentration induces various physiological and biochemical responses in plants, while plants employ mechanisms in(More)
OBJECTIVES Oesophagectomy is at present considered to be the optimal curative treatment for patients with severe oesophageal disease. Postoperative pain, both acute and chronic, plays a significant role in the quality of life for post-oesophagectomy patients. The present study compared the effects of two methods-application of a non-divided intercostal(More)