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We investigated the effects of PACAP treatment, and endogenous PACAP deficiency, on infarct volume, neurological function, and the cerebrocortical transcriptional response in a mouse model of stroke, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). PACAP-38 administered i.v. or i.c.v. 1 h after MCAO significantly reduced infarct volume, and ameliorated functional(More)
We have demonstrated that induction of mucosal tolerance to E-selectin, a cytokine-inducible adhesion molecule restricted to activating blood vessels, prevents ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in spontaneously hypertensive, genetically stroke-prone (SHR-SP) rats. We now examine whether mucosal tolerance to E-selectin has protective effects in ischemic brain(More)
Previous studies found that polymorphisms rs2736990 and rs356220 in the alpha-synuclein (SNCA) gene increase the risk for Parkinson's disease (PD) in a Caucasian population. In consideration of the overlapping of clinical manifestations and pathologic characteristics among PD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and multiple system atrophy (MSA), the(More)
OBJECTIVE Previous studies attempting to define the natural history of postoperative nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (pNFPAs) were somewhat limited by selection bias and/or small numbers and/or lack of consistency among the study findings. The aim of this study was to scrutinize the literature in order to analyze the natural history of pNFPAs. METHODS(More)
Numerous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) such as GAK rs1564282 and DGKQ rs11248060 have been reported to be associated with the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) in Caucasian populations. However, this association is yet to be proven in the Chinese population. This study included 376 unrelated Han Chinese PD patients from Southwest China and 277(More)
Brain cells produce cytokines and chemokines during the inflammatory process after stroke both in animal models and in patients. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), one of the proinflammatory chemokines, can attract monocytes to the tissue where MCP-1 is overexpressed. However, the role of MCP-1 elevation in stroke has not been explored in detail.(More)
Modification of target molecules by ubiquitin or ubiquitin-like (Ubl) proteins is generally reversible. Little is known, however, about the physiological function of the reverse reaction, deconjugation. Atg8 is a unique Ubl protein whose conjugation target is the lipid phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Atg8 functions in the formation of double-membrane(More)
To the Editor: China reported its first human infections with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in late March 2013 (1). In the following weeks, 131 human infections were confirmed; 33 occurred in Shanghai (http://www. moh.gov.cn). Because infection with this novel virus had a high fatality rate and posed a pandemic risk, Shanghai disease control authorities(More)
The major components of an electric vehicle system are the motor, controller, power supply, charger and drive train (wry, 2003). Fig. 1 demonstrates a system model for an electric vehicle. Controller is the heart of an electric vehicle, and it is the key for the realization of a high-performance electric vehicle with an optimal balance of maximum speed,(More)
This paper introduces a broad index of macroeconomic uncertainty based on the ex-ante measures of cross-sectional dispersion in economic forecasts by the Survey of Professional Forecasters. We estimate individual stock exposures to a newly proposed measure of economic uncertainty index and find that the resulting uncertainty beta predicts a significant(More)