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Membrane budding-fission is a fundamental process generating intracellular carriers of proteins. Earlier works were focused only on formation of coated buds connected to the initial membrane by narrow membrane necks. We present the theoretical analysis of the whole pathway of budding-fission, including the crucial stage where the membrane neck undergoes(More)
Lipid bilayer fusion is thought to involve formation of a local hemifusion connection, referred to as a fusion stalk. The subsequent fusion stages leading to the opening of a fusion pore remain unknown. The earliest fusion pore could represent a bilayer connection between the membranes and could be formed directly from the stalk. Alternatively, fusion pore(More)
Membrane fusion proceeds via formation of intermediate nonbilayer structures. The stalk model of fusion intermediate is commonly recognized to account for the major phenomenology of the fusion process. However, in its current form, the stalk model poses a challenge. On one hand, it is able to describe qualitatively the modulation of the fusion reaction by(More)
Various bacterial strains exhibit colonial branching patterns during growth on poor substrates. These patterns reflect bacterial cooperative self-organization and cybernetic processes of communication, regulation and control employed during colonial development. One method of modeling is the continuous, or coupled reaction-diffusion approach, in which(More)
In addition to the familiar bending and stretching deformations, lipid monolayers and bilayers in their disordered state are often subjected to tilt deformations, occurring for instance in structural rearrangements accompanying membrane fusion, or upon insertion of "oblique" hydrophobic proteins into lipid bilayers. We study the elastic response of a flat(More)
We consider the elastic behavior of flat lipid monolayer embedding cylindrical inclusions oriented obliquely with respect to the monolayer plane. An oblique inclusion models a fusion peptide, a part of a specialized protein capable of inducing merger of biological membranes in the course of fundamental cellular processes. Although the crucial importance of(More)
In nature, microorganisms must often cope with hostile environmental conditions. To do so they have developed sophisticated cooperative behavior and intricate communication capabilities, such as: direct cell-cell physical interactions via extra-membrane polymers, collective production of extracellular " wetting " fluid for movement on hard surfaces, long(More)
One of the earliest lipid intermediates forming in the course of membrane fusion is the lipid stalk. Although many aspects of the stalk hypothesis were elaborated theoretically and confirmed by experiments it remained unresolved whether stalk formation is always an energy consuming process or if there are conditions where the stalks are energetically(More)
Various bacterial strains (e.g., strains belonging to the genera Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Serratia, and Salmonella) exhibit colonial branching patterns during growth on poor semisolid substrates. These patterns reflect the bacterial cooperative self-organization. A central part of the cooperation is the collective formation of a lubricant on top of the agar(More)
We study the eeect of discreteness on various models for patterning in bacterial colonies. In a bacterial colony with branching pattern, there are discrete entities { bacteria { which are only two order of magnitude smaller than the elements of the macroscopic pattern. We present two types of models. The rst is the Communicating Walkers model, a hybrid(More)