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In response to DNA damage, mammalian cells prevent cell cycle progression through the control of critical cell cycle regulators. A human gene was identified that encodes the protein Chk1, a homolog of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe Chk1 protein kinase, which is required for the DNA damage checkpoint. Human Chk1 protein was modified in response to DNA damage.(More)
In response to DNA damage, cells activate checkpoint pathways that prevent cell cycle progression. In fission yeast and mammals, mitotic arrest in response to DNA damage requires inhibitory Cdk phosphorylation regulated by Chk1. This study indicates that Chk1 is required for function of the DNA damage checkpoint in Saccharomyces cerevisiae but acts through(More)
Heat-shock proteins (hsps) are induced by many types of stress. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a mutation in the HSP104 gene, a member of the highly conserved hsp100 gene family, reduces the ability of log-phase fermenting cells to withstand high temperatures after mild, conditioning pretreatments. Here, we examine the expression of hsp104 and its importance(More)
Mutants of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) homolog MEC1/SAD3/ESR1 were identified that could live only if the RAD53/SAD1 checkpoint kinase was overproduced. MEC1 and a structurally related gene, TEL1, have overlapping functions in response to DNA damage and replication blocks that in mutants can be provided by overproduction(More)
Most eukaryotic cells produce proteins with relative molecular masses in the range of 100,000 to 110,000 after exposure to high temperatures. These proteins have been studied only in yeast and mammalian cells. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, heat-shock protein hsp104 is vital for tolerance to heat, ethanol and other stresses. The mammalian hsp110 protein is(More)
Binding proteins for insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) IGF-I and IGF-II, known as IGFBPs, control the distribution, function and activity of IGFs in various cell tissues and body fluids. Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) is known to modulate the stimulatory effects of IGFs and is the major IGF-binding protein in bone tissue. We have(More)
The Schizosaccharomyces pombe exchange factor Rgf1p specifically regulates Rho1p during polarized growth. Rgf1p activates the beta-glucan synthase (GS) complex containing the catalytic subunit Bgs4p and is involved in the activation of growth at the second end, a transition that requires actin reorganization. In this work, we investigated Rgf1p signaling(More)
The Rho family of GTPases are highly conserved molecular switches that control some of the most fundamental processes of cell biology, including morphogenesis, vesicular transport, cell division and motility. Guanine nucleotide-exchange factors (GEFs) are directly responsible for the activation of Rho-family GTPases in response to extracellular stimuli. In(More)
The transition from transcription initiation to elongation involves phosphorylation of the large subunit (Rpb1) of RNA polymerase II on the repetitive carboxyl-terminal domain. The elongating hyperphosphorylated Rpb1 is subject to ubiquitination, particularly in response to UV radiation and DNA-damaging agents. By using computer modeling, we identified(More)