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Keishibukuryogan (KBG) is one of the traditional herbal formulations widely administered to patients with blood stagnation for improving blood circulation; currently, it is the most frequently prescribed medicine in Japan. KBG has been reported to improve conjunctional microcirculation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of KBG and paeoniflorin,(More)
Platinum nanoparticles (nano-Pt) have been reported to possess anti-oxidant and anti-tumor activities. However, the biological activity and mechanism of action of nano-Pt in inflammation are still unknown. The present study was designed to determine the in-vitro anti-inflammatory effects of nano-Pt on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. RAW(More)
Solar ultraviolet (UV) B radiation is known to induce matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that degrade collagen in the basement membrane. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pluripotent cytokine that plays an essential role in the pathophysiology of skin inflammation induced by UV irradiation. This study examined the effects of MIF on basement(More)
Sunburn, wound repair, and chronic renal failure with hemodialysis are usually accompanied by both pigmentation and itching. Proopiomelanocortin-derived α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is produced in response to external stimuli, such as UV irradiation, and is involved in cutaneous pigmentation. However, it is unclear whether α-MSH is also involved(More)
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pluripotent cytokine that has an essential role in the pathophysiology of experimental allergic inflammation. Recent findings suggest that MIF is involved in several allergic disorders, including atopic dermatitis (AD). In this study, the role of MIF in allergic skin inflammation was examined using a murine(More)
Platinum nanoparticles (Pt-NPs) are known to possess anti-tumouric activity and the ability to scavenge superoxides and peroxides indicating that they can act as superoxide dismutase (SOD)/catalase mimetics. These potentials seem useful in the protection and/or amelioration of oxidative stress-associated pathologies, but, when they are combined with a(More)
D-serine is an endogenous coagonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor in the central nervous system and its synthesis is catalyzed by serine racemase (SR). Recently, the NMDA receptor has been found to be expressed in keratinocytes (KCs) of the skin and involved in the regulation of KC growth and differentiation. However, the(More)
Contact dermatitis is produced by external skin exposure to an allergen, but sometimes a systemically administered allergen may reach the skin and remain concentrated there with the aid of the circulatory system, leading to the production of systemic contact dermatitis (SCD). Metals such as nickel, cobalt, chromium, and zinc are ubiquitous in our(More)
Intra-cellular reactive nitrogen/oxygen species and apoptosis play important roles in ultraviolet (UV)-induced inflammatory responses in the skin. Astaxanthin (AST), a xanthophyll carotenoid, exhibits diverse clinical benefits. The protective effects of AST against UV-induced apoptosis were investigated in the present study. Astaxanthin (5 μm) caused a(More)
UV radiation indirectly regulates melanogenesis in melanocytes through a paracrine regulatory mechanism involving keratinocytes. Protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2 activation induces melanosome transfer by increasing phagocytosis of melanosomes by keratinocytes. This study demonstrated that macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) stimulated PAR-2(More)