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The major constraint to plant growth in acid soils is the presence of toxic aluminum (Al) cations, which inhibit root elongation. The enhanced Al tolerance exhibited by some cultivars of wheat is associated with the Al-dependent efflux of malate from root apices. Malate forms a stable complex with Al that is harmless to plants and, therefore, this efflux of(More)
Aluminum (Al) tolerance in Arabidopsis is a genetically complex trait, yet it is mediated by a single physiological mechanism based on Al-activated root malate efflux. We investigated a possible molecular determinant for Al tolerance involving a homolog of the wheat Al-activated malate transporter, ALMT1. This gene, named AtALMT1 (At1g08430), was the best(More)
Pea (Pisum sativum) roots were treated with aluminum in a calcium solution, and lipid peroxidation was investigated histochemically and biochemically, as well as other events caused by aluminum exposure. Histochemical stainings were observed to distribute similarly on the entire surface of the root apex for three events (aluminum accumulation, lipid(More)
Potential mechanisms of Al toxicity measured as Al-induced inhibition of growth in cultured tobacco cells (Nicotiana tabacum, nonchlorophyllic cell line SL) and pea (Pisum sativum) roots were investigated. Compared with the control treatment without Al, the accumulation of Al in tobacco cells caused instantaneously the repression of mitochondrial activities(More)
Testicular testosterone produced during a critical perinatal period is thought to masculinize and defeminize the male brain from the inherent feminization program and induce male-typical behaviors in the adult. These actions of testosterone appear to be exerted not through its androgenic activity, but rather through its conversion by brain aromatase into(More)
Aluminum (Al) resistance in wheat relies on the Al-activated malate efflux from root apices, which appears to be controlled by an Al-activated anion transporter encoded by the ALMT1 gene on chromosome 4DL. Genomic regions upstream and downstream of ALMT1 in 69 wheat lines were characterized to identify patterns that might influence ALMT1 expression. The(More)
The aluminum (Al)-induced secretion of citrate has been regarded as an important mechanism for Al resistance in soybean (Glycine max). However, the mechanism of how Al induces citrate secretion remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the regulatory role of plasma membrane H+-ATPase on the Al-induced secretion of citrate from soybean roots.(More)
Photosystem II is vulnerable to various abiotic stresses such as strong visible light and heat. Under both stresses, the damage seems to be triggered by reactive oxygen species, and the most critical damage occurs in the reaction center-binding D1 protein. Recent progress has been made in identifying the protease involved in the degradation of the photo- or(More)
The present investigation was undertaken to verify whether mitochondria play a significant role in aluminium (Al) toxicity, using the mitochondria isolated from tobacco cells (Nicotiana tabacum, non-chlorophyllic cell line SL) under Al stress. An inhibition of respiration was observed in terms of state-III, state-IV, succinate-dependent, alternative oxidase(More)
Allele diversities of four markers specific to intron three, exon four and promoter regions of the aluminum (Al) resistance gene of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) TaALMT1 were compared in 179 common wheat cultivars used in international wheat breeding programs. In wheat cultivars released during the last 93 years, six different promoter types were identified(More)