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Testicular testosterone produced during a critical perinatal period is thought to masculinize and defeminize the male brain from the inherent feminization program and induce male-typical behaviors in the adult. These actions of testosterone appear to be exerted not through its androgenic activity, but rather through its conversion by brain aromatase into(More)
Ca(2+) is absorbed across intestinal epithelial monolayers via transcellular and paracellular pathways, and an active form of vitamin D(3), 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)], is known to promote intestinal Ca(2+) absorption. However, the molecules driving the paracellular Ca(2+) absorption and its vitamin D dependency remain obscure.(More)
Epigenetic modifications at the histone level affect gene regulation in response to extracellular signals. However, regulated epigenetic modifications at the DNA level, especially active DNA demethylation, in gene activation are not well understood. Here we report that DNA methylation/demethylation is hormonally switched to control transcription of the(More)
Environmental stresses lower the efficiency of photosynthesis and sometimes cause irreversible damage to plant functions. When spinach thylakoids and Photosystem II membranes were illuminated with excessive visible light (100-1,000 µmol photons m(-1) s(-1)) for 10 min at either 20°C or 30°C, the optimum quantum yield of Photosystem II decreased as the light(More)
SUMMARY Estrogen prevents osteoporotic bone loss by attenuating bone resorption; however, the molecular basis for this is unknown. Here, we report a critical role for the osteoclastic estro-gen receptor a (ERa) in mediating estrogen-dependent bone maintenance in female mice. We selectively ablated ERa in differentiated osteoclasts (ERa DOc/DOc) and found(More)
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