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To identify the major risk factors for the increased incidence of congenital malformations in offspring of mothers being treated for epilepsy with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) during pregnancy and, to determine the relative teratogenic risk of AEDs, we prospectively analyzed 983 offspring born in Japan, Italy, and Canada. The incidence of congenital(More)
We have screened genes predominantly expressed in the rat spinal cord, and we report here cloning of the most abundant unknown gene. It is a novel member of the central nervous system (CNS) myelin-constituting proteins, myelin-associated oligodendrocytic basic protein (MOBP). MOBP is abundantly expressed specifically in oligodendrocytes at the mRNA level(More)
In situ detection of neural progenitor cells including stem-like cells is essential for studying the basic mechanisms of the generation of cellular diversity in the CNS, upon which therapeutic treatments for CNS injuries, degenerative diseases, and brain tumors may be based. We have generated rat monoclonal antibodies (Mab 14H1 and 14B8) that recognize an(More)
Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for growth hormone secretagogue (GHS) receptor originally isolated from the stomach, occurs in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and may play a role in energy homeostasis. Synthetic GHSs have activated the hypothalamic arcuate neurons containing neuropeptide Y (NPY), suggesting the involvement of NPY in some of ghrelin actions.(More)
Mesencephalic precursor cells may one day provide dopaminergic neurons for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. However, the generation of dopaminergic neurons from mesencephalic precursors has been difficult to follow, partly because an appropriate means for recognizing mesencephalic ventricular zone precursors has not been available. To visualize and(More)
To assess the relative contribution of antiepileptic drugs (AEDS) to occurrence of congenital malformations, we compared two prospective studies. We analyzed data for 14 AEDs for total daily doses (drug score) and eight background factors. From the first study, the drug score and polytherapy--particularly the use of valproate plus carbamazepine--were(More)
Leptin, the obese (ob) gene product, is an adipocyte-derived satiety factor that is involved in the regulation of food ingestion and body weight. To investigate glucocorticoid regulation of leptin synthesis and secretion in humans, we measured plasma leptin levels in patients with Cushing's syndrome with adrenal or pituitary adenoma and in patients with(More)
The role of IL-7 in the stromal cell-dependent B cell development was investigated using two stromal cell clones, ST2 and PA6; the former supports B lymphopoiesis while the latter can not. We demonstrate here that: (a) the ability of the stromal cell clone to produce IL-7 correlates well with the stromal cell activity to support B lymphopoiesis; (b) IL-7(More)
and characterization of dendritic cells from common marmosets for preclinical cell therapy studies.dimensional stereotactic surface projection of brain perfusion SPECT improves diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.201 single-photon emission computed tomography in the detection of retroperitoneal schwanoma. Evaluation of ischemic heart disease on a conventional(More)
Studies on the clinical course of familial ALS suggest that the duration of illness is relatively consistent for each mutation but variable among the different mutations. The authors analyzed the relative amount of mutant compared with normal SOD1 protein in the erythrocytes from 29 patients with ALS with 22 different mutations. Turnover of mutant SOD1(More)