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In natural communities, species and their interactions are often organized as nonrandom networks, showing distinct and repeated complex patterns. A prevalent, but poorly explored pattern is ecological modularity, with weakly interlinked subsets of species (modules), which, however, internally consist of strongly connected species. The importance of(More)
A pollination network may be either 2-mode, describing trophic and reproductive interactions between communities of flowering plants and pollinator species within a well-defined habitat, or 1-mode, describing interactions between either plants or pollinators. In a 1-mode pollinator network, two pollinator species are linked to each other if they both visit(More)
Ecological networks are complexes of interacting species, but not all potential links among species are realized. Unobserved links are either missing or forbidden. Missing links exist, but require more sampling or alternative ways of detection to be verified. Forbidden links remain unobservable, irrespective of sampling effort. They are caused by linkage(More)
BACKGROUND Flower visiting insects provide a vitally important pollination service for many crops and wild plants. Recent decline of pollinating insects due to anthropogenic modification of habitats and climate, in particular from 1950's onwards, is a major and widespread concern. However, few studies document the extent of declines in species diversity,(More)
1. Co-existing plants and flower-visiting animals often form complex interaction networks. A long-standing question in ecology and evolutionary biology is how to detect nonrandom subsets (compartments, blocks, modules) of strongly interacting species within such networks. Here we use a network analytical approach to (i) detect modularity in pollination(More)
Most ecological networks are analysed as static structures, where all observed species and links are present simultaneously. However, this is over-simplified, because networks are temporally dynamical. We resolved an arctic, entire-season plant-flower visitor network into a temporal series of 1-day networks and compared the properties with its static(More)
Adult body mass is a strong correlate of many important life history traits of bees, and thus, has been used as a proxy for these traits in ecological studies. However, body mass is difficult to measure on live specimens in the field, and impossible to measure non-destructively on dry museum specimens. For worker and male bumblebees, we evaluated the linear(More)
Shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) is an important fruit tree in West African parklands, and its successful pollination is a requirement for fruit production. Size-based pollinator exclusion experiments combined with visual observations showed that presence of honey bees (Apis mellifera jemenitica) was important for pollination and thereby the production of fruits(More)
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