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Adiponectin (Ad) is a hormone secreted by adipocytes that regulates energy homeostasis and glucose and lipid metabolism. However, the signaling pathways that mediate the metabolic effects of Ad remain poorly identified. Here we show that phosphorylation and activation of the 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) are stimulated with globular and full-length(More)
The Drosophila transient receptor potential protein (TRP) and its mammalian homologues are thought to be Ca(2+)-permeable cation channels activated by G protein (G(q/11))-coupled receptors and are regarded as an interesting molecular model for the Ca(2+) entry mechanisms associated with stimulated phosphoinositide turnover and store depletion. However,(More)
Neural crest cells are multipotential stem cells that contribute extensively to vertebrate development and give rise to various cell and tissue types. Determination of the fate of mammalian neural crest has been inhibited by the lack of appropriate markers. Here, we make use of a two-component genetic system for indelibly marking the progeny of the cranial(More)
Through functional expression screening, we identified a gene, designated Humanin (HN) cDNA, which encodes a short polypeptide and abolishes death of neuronal cells caused by multiple different types of familial Alzheimer's disease genes and by Abeta amyloid, without effect on death by Q79 or superoxide dismutase-1 mutants. Transfected HN cDNA was(More)
Extensive variability in genomic sequence, especially at "hypervariable regions" within the NS1/E2 region of the long open reading frame, has been reported for RNA cloned from hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected humans and chimpanzees. However, genetic changes of HCV occurring during the course of chronic infections in humans and animals have been evaluated(More)
BACKGROUND Vertebrates have numerous lateral asymmetries in the position of their organs, but the molecular basis for the determination of left-right (L-R) asymmetries remains largely unknown. TGFbeta-related genes such as lefty and nodal are L-R asymmetrically expressed in developing mouse embryos, and may be involved in L-R determination. RESULTS We(More)
Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD), an autosomal-dominant human bone disease, is thought to be caused by heterozygous mutations in runt-related gene 2 (RUNX2)/polyomavirus enhancer binding protein 2alphaA (PEBP2alphaA)/core-binding factor A1 (CBFA1). To understand the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of CCD, we studied a novel mutant of RUNX2, CCDalphaA376,(More)
The effect of motor activity on the left fronto-central region of the human brain was analyzed spatially and temporally by using noninvasive near-infrared light (NIR) topography. The changes in oxygenation states caused by motor activity were measured using intensity-modulated NIR spectroscopy at ten measurement positions on the head surface. The subject(More)
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a new technique for non-invasive monitoring of tissue oxygenation and its kinetics. Up to this date, it has been used solely in research for the global hemodynamic change of the brain and for rough regional activation after stimulating the brain physiologically. This paper describes functional brain mapping using multi(More)