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Adiponectin (Ad) is a hormone secreted by adipocytes that regulates energy homeostasis and glucose and lipid metabolism. However, the signaling pathways that mediate the metabolic effects of Ad remain poorly identified. Here we show that phosphorylation and activation of the 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) are stimulated with globular and full-length(More)
Neural crest cells are multipotential stem cells that contribute extensively to vertebrate development and give rise to various cell and tissue types. Determination of the fate of mammalian neural crest has been inhibited by the lack of appropriate markers. Here, we make use of a two-component genetic system for indelibly marking the progeny of the cranial(More)
The Drosophila transient receptor potential protein (TRP) and its mammalian homologues are thought to be Ca(2+)-permeable cation channels activated by G protein (G(q/11))-coupled receptors and are regarded as an interesting molecular model for the Ca(2+) entry mechanisms associated with stimulated phosphoinositide turnover and store depletion. However,(More)
Through functional expression screening, we identified a gene, designated Humanin (HN) cDNA, which encodes a short polypeptide and abolishes death of neuronal cells caused by multiple different types of familial Alzheimer's disease genes and by Abeta amyloid, without effect on death by Q79 or superoxide dismutase-1 mutants. Transfected HN cDNA was(More)
The mature form of chitinase A1 from Bacillus circulans WL-12 comprises a C-terminal domain, two type III modules (domains), and a large N-terminal domain which contains the catalytic site of the enzyme. In order to better define the roles of these chitinase domains in chitin degradation, modified chiA genes encoding various deletions of chitinase A1 were(More)
Extensive variability in genomic sequence, especially at "hypervariable regions" within the NS1/E2 region of the long open reading frame, has been reported for RNA cloned from hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected humans and chimpanzees. However, genetic changes of HCV occurring during the course of chronic infections in humans and animals have been evaluated(More)
PURPOSE To determine if apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) can be used to differentiate brain tumors at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS Institutional review board approval or informed patient consent was not required. MR images were reviewed retrospectively in 275 patients with brain tumors: 147 males and 128 females 1-81 years(More)
cDNAs representing the alpha subunit of polyomavirus enhancer binding protein 2 (PEBP2; also called PEA2) were isolated. The products of the cDNAs are highly homologous to that of Drosophila segmentation gene runt (run) for an N-proximal 128-amino acid region showing 66% identity. The run homology region encompasses the domain capable of binding to a(More)
Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD), an autosomal-dominant human bone disease, is thought to be caused by heterozygous mutations in runt-related gene 2 (RUNX2)/polyomavirus enhancer binding protein 2alphaA (PEBP2alphaA)/core-binding factor A1 (CBFA1). To understand the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of CCD, we studied a novel mutant of RUNX2, CCDalphaA376,(More)
BACKGROUND Vertebrates have numerous lateral asymmetries in the position of their organs, but the molecular basis for the determination of left-right (L-R) asymmetries remains largely unknown. TGFbeta-related genes such as lefty and nodal are L-R asymmetrically expressed in developing mouse embryos, and may be involved in L-R determination. RESULTS We(More)