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IMPORTANCE Our understanding of how mental and physical disorders are associated and contribute to health outcomes in populations depends on accurate ascertainment of the history of these disorders. Recent studies have identified substantial discrepancies in the prevalence of mental disorders among adolescents and young adults depending on whether the(More)
BACKGROUND Although structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have repeatedly demonstrated regional brain structural abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia, relatively few MRI-based studies have attempted to distinguish between patients with first-episode schizophrenia and healthy controls. METHOD Three-dimensional MR images were acquired(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with deficit schizophrenia (D-SZ) differ from patients with the non-deficit form of schizophrenia (ND-SZ) in several aspects such as risk factors, neurobiological correlates, treatment response and clinical outcome. It has been debated if brain morphology could differentiate D-SZ from ND-SZ. Anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG) region(More)
BACKGROUND Although clinical and neuropsychological findings have implicated functional deficits of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in schizophrenia, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of this region have yielded inconsistent findings. In addition, it remains elusive whether the OFC morphology in first-episode patients is related to their(More)
BACKGROUND Brain morphometric measures from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have not been used to discriminate between first-episode patients with schizophrenia and healthy subjects. METHODS Magnetic resonance images were acquired from 34 (17 males, 17 females) first-episode schizophrenia patients and 48 (24 males, 24 females) age- and parental(More)
Morphological changes in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), such as an altered sulcogyral pattern of the ‘H-shaped’ orbital sulcus and a shallow olfactory sulcus, have been demonstrated in schizophrenia, possibly reflecting deviations in early neurodevelopment. However, it remains unclear whether patients with schizotypal features exhibit similar OFC changes.(More)
BACKGROUND Co-morbidity of schizophrenia (SZ) and metabolic problems such as diabetes mellitus (DM) has been suggested by many studies. Nonetheless, it is still debated whether DM affects cognitive dysfunction associated with SZ and how much treatment for DM is beneficial for cognitive functions in SZ. We addressed these questions by re-assessing the(More)
BACKGROUND Adolescents comprise a unique and often challenging group of patients with diverse presentations to the Mental Health Services; suicidal behavior being one of them. AIMS The main aim of this naturalistic project was to investigate demographic and clinical correlates of adolescent suicidal and self-harm events, which may be of value to(More)
BACKGROUND Symptomatic and functional outcomes in schizophrenia are associated with the duration of untreated psychosis. However, no candidate biomarkers have been adopted in clinical settings. Multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), which can easily and noninvasively measure hemodynamics over the prefrontal cortex, is a candidate instrument for(More)
OBJECTIVE The study compared delays in seeking general medical care among adults with serious mental illness and a general population sample. Associations of delays with health status and use of emergency department services among individuals with serious mental illness were also assessed. METHODS Data for 271 persons with serious mental illness (clinic(More)