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IMPORTANCE Our understanding of how mental and physical disorders are associated and contribute to health outcomes in populations depends on accurate ascertainment of the history of these disorders. Recent studies have identified substantial discrepancies in the prevalence of mental disorders among adolescents and young adults depending on whether the(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with deficit schizophrenia (D-SZ) differ from patients with the non-deficit form of schizophrenia (ND-SZ) in several aspects such as risk factors, neurobiological correlates, treatment response and clinical outcome. It has been debated if brain morphology could differentiate D-SZ from ND-SZ. Anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG) region(More)
BACKGROUND Although structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have repeatedly demonstrated regional brain structural abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia, relatively few MRI-based studies have attempted to distinguish between patients with first-episode schizophrenia and healthy controls. METHOD Three-dimensional MR images were acquired(More)
BACKGROUND Brain morphometric measures from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have not been used to discriminate between first-episode patients with schizophrenia and healthy subjects. METHODS Magnetic resonance images were acquired from 34 (17 males, 17 females) first-episode schizophrenia patients and 48 (24 males, 24 females) age- and parental(More)
BACKGROUND Although clinical and neuropsychological findings have implicated functional deficits of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in schizophrenia, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of this region have yielded inconsistent findings. In addition, it remains elusive whether the OFC morphology in first-episode patients is related to their(More)
BACKGROUND Symptomatic and functional outcomes in schizophrenia are associated with the duration of untreated psychosis. However, no candidate biomarkers have been adopted in clinical settings. Multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), which can easily and noninvasively measure hemodynamics over the prefrontal cortex, is a candidate instrument for(More)
BACKGROUND Co-morbidity of schizophrenia (SZ) and metabolic problems such as diabetes mellitus (DM) has been suggested by many studies. Nonetheless, it is still debated whether DM affects cognitive dysfunction associated with SZ and how much treatment for DM is beneficial for cognitive functions in SZ. We addressed these questions by re-assessing the(More)
The similarity between psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia such as hallucinations and delusions and those caused by administration of methamphetamine has been accepted. While the etiology of schizophrenia remains unclear, methamphetamine induced psychosis, which is obviously occurred by methamphetamine administration, had been widely(More)
The adipocytokine leptin is a key mediator of energy homeostasis. Recent papers have suggested that leptin may also have roles in the brain however it is unclear whether leptin is connected to symptoms of mental disorders. In this study, we sought to clarify the relationships between serum leptin level and psychopathology in schizophrenia (SZ) patients. The(More)
OBJECTIVE Past studies have shown that many individuals who use antidepressants have no current or lifetime history of mental disorders. However, recent studies suggest that the one-time retrospective evaluation of mental disorders commonly used in such studies may substantially underestimate the true lifetime prevalence of mental disorders. We examined the(More)