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To clarify mechanisms of neuronal death in the postischemic brain, we examined whether astrocytes exposed to hypoxia/reoxygenation exert a neurotoxic effect, using a coculture system. Neurons cocultured with astrocytes subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation underwent apoptotic cell death, the effect enhanced by a combination of interleukin-1beta with hypoxia.(More)
Identification of mechanisms that regulate the number of synapses in the brain has been a key issue for understanding the mechanism of plasticity. Here, we report that the density of synapses can be changed using an antagonist and/or an agonist of serotonin (5-HT) type 2A receptors in the chicken spinal cord. Because of the widespread distribution pattern(More)
Based on the neurotrophic properties of astrocytes in response to ischemia, the current work focuses on the mechanism for cultured astrocytes to adapt to a hypoxic environment. Intracellular glucose levels in primary cultured rat astrocytes exposed to hypoxia fell by 30% within 24 h, in parallel with a decrease in glycogen stores. Glycolytic metabolism was(More)
The temporary three-vessel occlusion (3VO) technique with a surgical approach for middle cerebral artery (MCA) produces consistent cerebral infarction in the neocortex in normotensive rats. The intraluminal thread-occlusion technique with an endovascular approach targeting the MCA occlusion (MCAO) is more widely used since it does not require complicated(More)
We evaluated the effects of ministrokes targeted to individual pial arterioles on motor function in Thy-1 line 18 channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) transgenic mice within the first hours after ischemia. Using optogenetics, we directly assessed both the excitability and motor output of cortical neurons in a manner independent of behavioral state or training.(More)
Expression of E-cadherin in 21 patients with various histological types of gastric carcinomas was studied by immunoperoxidase staining. Intercellular boundaries of almost all cancer cells in well and moderately differentiated adenocarcinomas stained as deeply for E-cadherin as normal gastric mucosa. However, singly infiltrating cells of those histological(More)
To explore the mechanism of increased collagen deposition in scirrhous carcinoma of the stomach, an attempt was made to define the role of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1), secreted from tumour cells, as a possible humoral factor which functions in a paracrine manner to stimulate the production of collagen in regional fibroblasts.(More)
Human gastric carcinomas were tested for their immunohistochemical reactivity with anti-type I procollagen antiserum. In all specimens of scirrhous carcinomas, staining of the tumour cells was strongly positive, while in medullary carcinomas staining of the tumour cells was generally poor. These results suggest that the tumour cells in scirrhous carcinomas(More)
Adenovirus (Ad) E4orf6/7, one of the early gene products of human Ads, forms a stable complex with the cellular transcription factor E2F to activate transcription from the Ad E2 promoter. E2F cDNAs have growth-promoting and apoptosis-inducing activities when overexpressed in cells. We cloned Ad5 E4orf6/7 cDNA in both simian virus 40- and human(More)
It has been shown that some types of tumour cells produce activated transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta 1). However, the mechanism for the activation of TGF-beta 1 derived from tumour cells has not been fully elucidated. The present study was undertaken to characterise an activator of latent TGF-beta 1 secreted from a human gastric cancer cell line,(More)
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