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To clarify mechanisms of neuronal death in the postischemic brain, we examined whether astrocytes exposed to hypoxia/reoxygenation exert a neurotoxic effect, using a coculture system. Neurons cocultured with astrocytes subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation underwent apoptotic cell death, the effect enhanced by a combination of interleukin-1beta with hypoxia.(More)
Identification of mechanisms that regulate the number of synapses in the brain has been a key issue for understanding the mechanism of plasticity. Here, we report that the density of synapses can be changed using an antagonist and/or an agonist of serotonin (5-HT) type 2A receptors in the chicken spinal cord. Because of the widespread distribution pattern(More)
Based on the neurotrophic properties of astrocytes in response to ischemia, the current work focuses on the mechanism for cultured astrocytes to adapt to a hypoxic environment. Intracellular glucose levels in primary cultured rat astrocytes exposed to hypoxia fell by 30% within 24 h, in parallel with a decrease in glycogen stores. Glycolytic metabolism was(More)
The temporary three-vessel occlusion (3VO) technique with a surgical approach for middle cerebral artery (MCA) produces consistent cerebral infarction in the neocortex in normotensive rats. The intraluminal thread-occlusion technique with an endovascular approach targeting the MCA occlusion (MCAO) is more widely used since it does not require complicated(More)
We evaluated the effects of ministrokes targeted to individual pial arterioles on motor function in Thy-1 line 18 channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) transgenic mice within the first hours after ischemia. Using optogenetics, we directly assessed both the excitability and motor output of cortical neurons in a manner independent of behavioral state or training.(More)
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